List of Free & Open Access Abstract: Authentic Materials for Activity
|Total Abstracts Included||230|
In dealing with academic activities, students are included into activities that apply abstracts as authentic materials.
Abstracts listed in this page, applied as authentic materials, are:
- Indexed by Scopus and rated as Q1;
- Published between 2018 - 2021; and
- Contain "Teacher Education" and/or "Primary Education" as keyword.
The reason behind these criteria is to ensure that the students are only fed up by high-quality content/material which is free from grammatical mistake, discusses relevant content with students' major, methodologically accepted and offer relatively new issue/trend on education.
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This part deals with word density of the total abstracts included (NOTE: Title, Author(s) and keywords are excluded).
1. Journal of Teacher Education Free Sample ArticlesClick to read
Examining Grow Your Own Programs Across the Teacher Development Continuum: Mining Research on Teachers of Color and Nontraditional Educator by Pipelines Conra D. Gist, Margarita Bianco & Marvin Lynn
Grow Your Own (GYO) programs are cited in recent policy briefs as viable pathways for increasing the racial/ethnic diversity of teachers, yet recent scholarship on GYO programs is minimal. To address this issue, this article investigates what we know, and do not know, about GYO programs, by examining a range of data sources on different types of GYO program teacher pools (e.g., middle/high school, paraprofessional, community activists/parents mentors) and making sense of findings over a continuum of teacher development (e.g., recruitment, preparation, induction, and retention). Based on a research synthesis within and across GYO program teacher pools, we argue implications for policy, practice, and research that should accompany increased recommendations for expanding GYO models for Teachers of Color.
The Paradox of Pedagogical Excellence Among Exemplary Black Women Educators by Melanie M. Acosta
Research has documented that effective Black educators ignite the torch and light the path toward effectively meeting the needs of all students, particularly African American. However, descriptions of “highly qualified” teachers often ignore the critical insights and practices that undergird the success of Black teachers, and one consequence of this pedagogical negligence has been the professional alienation of effective Black female educators. This article shares findings from a study with five community-nominated Black female teachers, and uses the theories of intersectionality and positionality, along with discourse analysis, to investigate the groups’ perceptions of their professional positionality. Findings reveal a distinctive narrative in which participants expressed being positioned in ways that reflect negative stereotypical images of Black women despite their effectiveness in promoting student success. Implications and recommendations for teacher effectiveness research, teacher preparation, and teacher quality policy are included.
Lessons for Teacher Education: The Role of Critical Professional Development in Teacher of Color Retention by Rita Kohli
With disproportionately high attrition rates for teachers of Color, there are many lessons to be learned from veteran teacher leaders that can inform how we train teachers. In this article, I share analysis of interviews with 11 women of Color veteran teachers who serve in formal or informal leadership roles within social justice education. Their reflections reveal how teacher education programs—justice oriented or not—fell short in preparing them for the hostile racial climate of schools, thus putting them at increased risk of being pushed out of teaching. This article also points to collectivized teacher-led spaces of racial literacy development—framed as critical professional development (CPD)—that have helped to sustain them in the field. These teachers’ narratives offer significant insights for teacher education to better prepare teachers of Color for long, effective, and transformative careers.
Exploring the Boundary-Heightening Experiences of Black Male Teachers: Lessons for Teacher Education Programs by Travis J. Bristol & Ramon B. Goings
This article uses a phenomenological approach to explore the organizational dynamic of boundary heightening for 27 Black male teachers, across 14 schools, in one urban school district. Black male teachers described being perceived by their colleagues as either incompetent or overqualified to teach their subject matter. These experiences created workplace environments in which participants felt alienated from their colleagues. In response, these Black male teachers strategically erected social boundaries to manage interactions with their colleagues. Black male teacher diversity campaigns in education preparation programs should be informed by Black male teachers’ school-based experiences. The article shows how teacher education programs can redesign facets of their preparation to attend to the boundary-heightening and workplace experiences that Black male teachers may face in becoming teachers of record.
“Color Does Not Equal Consciousness”: Educators of Color Learning to Enact a Sociopolitical Consciousness by Iesha Jackson & Michelle Knight-Manuel
This study is based on an initiative for increasing college and career readiness for Black and Latino male high school students in New York City. From data that include 58 total hours of participant observations from 24 educators of color, written documentation from culturally relevant education–professional development (CRE-PD) activities, and transcripts of six group interviews, we examine these educators’ work to further their own sociopolitical consciousness in relation to increasing Black and Latino male students’ college and career readiness. We explore how secondary educators of color utilize pedagogical tools and practices in attempting to support their Black and Latino male students’ navigation of particular inequities related to college knowledge and access. Our findings highlight educators’ experiential knowledge as a pedagogical tool, approaches to preparing students for postsecondary opportunities, and missed opportunities to enact a sociopolitical consciousness. Recommendations for inservice educator PD and future research are discussed.
2. Teaching and Teacher Education Open Access ArticlesClick to read
Increasing teachers’ intercultural competences in teacher preparation programs and through professional development: A review by Bodine R. Romijn, Pauline L. Slot & Paul P.M. Leseman
This article reviews professional development efforts that aim to improve intercultural competences of in-service and pre-service teachers working in primary and early childhood education. A specific purpose was to evaluate the impact of the wider context and the use of reflection and enactment as facilitators of change. An analysis of 23 in-service and 22 pre-service papers shows that an embedded and contextual approach to professional development, in which reflection is guided and enactment is fostered, is most likely to effectively increase teachers’ intercultural competences. However, such an approach is still uncommon in the field of teacher preparation and support.
Who has power? An investigation of how one teacher led her class towards understanding an academic concept through talking and microblogging by Kari Anne Rødnes, Ingvill Rasmussen, Maren Omland & Victoria Cook
This study examines work with an academic concept in a multicultural classroom where a microblogging tool was used to facilitate dialogues. The analysis of extracts from classroom talk shows how one teacher prompted students to explain, elaborate and compare their written blog posts. The verbal richness and multiple perspectives evoked through the combination of dialogue and technology allowed the students to engage in active exploration of the concept of power in a social science lesson. This paper contributes to our understanding of dialogic practice as well as how specific features of technology can facilitate productive classroom interactions.
Teachers connecting with rural students and places: A mixed methods analysis by Angela Starrett, Jan Yow, Christine Lotter, Matthew J. Irvin & Paula Adams
Our study explores how teachers’ living proximity to their school and level of social connection to their rural community may influence implementation of place-based education and student-teacher relationships in mathematics and science classrooms. Both quantitative and qualitative results from 4126 students and 19 teachers reveal homegrown teachers (live in community where they grew up) highly value and excel at student-teacher relationships. Conversely, less socially connected commuters excel at implementing place-based education. Implications of our study provide new directions for recruiting rural teachers, aside from focusing on those from within the rural community.
Teacher burnout explained: Teacher-, student-, and organisation-level variables by Timo Saloviita & Eija Pakarinen
Understanding the factors related to teacher burnout helps in creating schools which foster teachers’ job satisfaction and the delivery of high-quality education. We studied teacher burnout and its three subdomains across several teacher-, student-, and organisation-level variables, including teacher category, class size, number of students with support needs, attitudes towards inclusive education, and availability of support. The participants were 4567 Finnish primary school teachers consisting of 2080 classroom teachers, 1744 subject teachers, 438 special-class and 305 resource room teachers. Several associations between teacher burnout and the background variables were observed and recommendations made based on these results.
Testing the model of double stimulation in a Change Laboratory by Daniele Morselli & Annalisa Sannino
The principle of double stimulation is foundational within Cultural Historical Activity Theory. This paper illustrates an analysis of the model of double stimulation applied to a Change Laboratory in an Italian vocational school. Results show that the four phases relating to Apparatus 1 do not follow the model in strict order, nor do they become concentrated in single sessions. The analysis points at quantitative and qualitative differences of the four phases between the first block and the second block of sessions, with the sixth session acting as a boundary.
How does learners’ behavior attract preservice teachers’ attention during teaching? by Patricia Goldberg, Jakob Schwerter, Tina Seidel, Katharina Müller & Kathleen Stürmer
Teachers need to continuously monitor students’ engagement in classrooms, but novice teachers have difficulties paying attention to individual behavioral cues in all learners. To investigate these interaction processes in more detail, we re-analyzed eye-tracking data from preservice teachers teaching simulated learners who engaged in different behaviors (Stürmer, Seidel, Müller, Häusler, & Cortina, 2017). With a new methodological approach, we synchronized the data with a continuous annotation of observable student behavior and conducted time series analysis on 3646 s of video material. Results indicate that novice teachers’ attention is attracted most often when learners show (inter)active learning-related behavior.
Factors contributing to student academic underachievement in war and conflict: A multilevel qualitative study by Safwat Y. Diab and Jon-Håkon Schultz
Guided by the ecological-transactional theory, this study investigates interrelated social and contextual multilevel factors contributing to academic underachievement in war and ongoing armed conflict. Twelve sixth-grade students were identified as academic underachievers and interviews were conducted with 40 informants—the 12 students, their parents, teachers, and counselors. All students exhibited symptoms of traumatic stress, had considerable problems with the cognitive process of learning and lacked basic study techniques. They experienced a considerable weakening of their natural social support system through lack of care, safety, or stability at home and additional burden in school, contributing to a profound sense of inadequacy and failure.
Co-teaching in non-linear projects: A contextualised model of co-teaching to support educational change by Tellervo Härkki, Henriikka Vartiainen, Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen & Kai Hakkarainen
Co-teaching is regularly paired with school improvements and educational reforms, yet research does not clearly separate the challenges of co-teaching for teacher professional development, course improvement and for wider reforms. We explored how co-teaching emerged and what barriers teachers experienced as meaningful for their co-teaching after a national core curriculum reform. Two cross-sectional data sets were collected. Three qualitatively different co-teaching profiles emerged: highly collaborative, collaborative, and imbalanced co-operative co-teaching. However, teachers’ experiences of the meaningful barriers varied. Finally, we propose a model of contextualised co-teaching that supports implementing and researching co-teaching as a part of second-order educational changes.
The role of motivations and perceptions on the retention of inservice teachers by Colette Alexander, Claire Wyatt-Smith & Anna Du Plessis
This article addresses the characteristics, motivations and perceptions of teachers regarding retention. The participants were practicing teachers in Australia. The survey included the Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) scale, previously used with preservice teachers. The results show that: i) teacher motivations are related to self-perceptions in teaching children/adolescents in the community, ii) threatened by negative social perceptions, and iii) influenced by characteristics such as gender. It is concluded that retention may be undermined by employment practices and social perceptions that erode a teacher’s self-concept. Outcomes inform policy for improving employment practices for the retention of a diverse teaching workforce.
Teachers’ work in the Swedish School Inspectorate’s quality audits in a time of accountability by Patric Sahlén, Eva Edman Stålbrandt & Eva Svärdemo Åberg
This article explores how the teacher is positioned and legitimised in the Swedish Schools Inspectorate’s quality audit reports. Using Foucauldian discourse analysis, two main subject positions are identified: activity-based subject positions where the teacher is constructed as an active actor, and competence- and responsibility-based subject positions where the teacher is constructed both as important for the students’ results, and as an individual in need of guidance. The teacher is positioned as a professional with limited competence. The reports show ambivalence regarding teachers’ position, which could be considered as delegitimising the teaching profession.
Do teachers’ years of experience make a difference in the quality of teaching? by Linda J. Graham, Sonia L.J. White, Kathy Cologon & Robert C. Pianta
Extensive reforms have been made to initial teacher education (ITE) to improve “teacher quality” without any evidence to support the claim that beginning teachers are less competent than experienced teachers. This study adds to the evidence base by investigating associations between teachers’ years of experience and teaching quality. Results show no evidence of lower teaching quality for beginning teachers (0–3 years’ experience), but some evidence of a decline in teaching quality for teachers with 4–5 years experience. Findings suggest that the quality of teaching could be higher overall, and that targeted support and evidence-informed professional learning would benefit all teachers.
Pathways to educational change revisited– controversies and advances in the German teacher education system by Robin Straub & Ulli Vilsmaier
This article contributes to the discourse of innovation and transfer strategies in German teacher education by (1) providing a conceptual analysis of prevalent approaches and (2) introducing a transdisciplinary perspective. The conceptual analysis indicates that top-down and bottom-up approaches lack either transformative momentum or scientific rigor. Collaborative approaches aim to mitigate this dilemma, but remain biased towards unidirectional innovation and transfer processes. In contrast, transdisciplinary approaches advocate for integrative and systemic pathways for educational change, which interlinks research and practice in teaching and teacher education. Illustrating examples from a boundary-crossing research and development project support this perspective.
Measuring the quality of teaching practices in primary schools: Assessing the validity of the Teach observation tool in Punjab, Pakistan by Ezequiel Molina, Syeda Farwa Fatima, Andrew Dean Ho, Carolina Melo, Tracy Marie Wilichowski & Adelle Pushparatnam
Monitoring the quality of teaching practices of primary school teachers in low-and-middle-income countries is often hampered by the lack of freely available classroom observation tools that are feasible to administer, validated in their own setting, and can be used as part of national monitoring systems. To address this discrepancy, Teach, an open-access classroom observation tool, was developed to measure the quality of teaching practices of primary school teachers in low-and-middle-income countries. This paper uses data from Punjab, Pakistan to evaluate the validity of Teach. Results show that Teach scores were internally consistent, presented good inter-rater reliability, and provided sufficient information to differentiate low from high-quality teaching practices. Further, higher Teach scores were associated with higher student outcomes.
A Norwegian perspective: Student teachers’ orientations towards cultural and linguistic diversity in schools by Wenche Elisabeth Thomassen & Elaine Munthe
This is a qualitative study about Norwegian preservice teachers’ orientations towards teaching in multilingual and multicultural classrooms – contributing to global research in this field. The theoretical approach, and tool for analyses, is a framework for Linguistically Responsive Pedagogy developed by Lucas and Villegas (2013). Main findings are that preservice teachers express value for linguistic diversity and a reflective discussion about the relation between identity/language and culture. Talking about race and colour is, however, uncomfortable. Suggestions for further development in Initial Teacher Education are given, and also suggestions for further research.
Classroom peace circles: Teachers’ professional learning and implementation of restorative dialogue by Christina Parker & Kathy Bickmore
Teachers’ professional learning about how to facilitate dialogue about conflicts is a core element of both peacemaking and democratic citizenship. Dialogue enables students to develop relationships and skills for handling conflict, proactively in classroom pedagogies and in response to disputes. Yet, such practices are challenging to fully implement and sustain in schools. Drawing on classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students, this article shows how four middle-grade public school teachers in Southern Ontario, Canada facilitated peace circles and how their students responded. The research sheds light on key principles and challenges in facilitating restorative dialogue in diverse classrooms.
Islamic religion teacher training in Spain: Implications for preventing islamic-inspired violent radicalism by Vicente Llorent-Bedmar, Verónica C. Cobano-Delgado Palma & María Navarro-Granados
In this study, the views of Islamic religion teachers, especially on broaching the subject of terrorism in the classroom, were analysed by administering a questionnaire and by conducting interviews. It was found that most of the respondents and interviewees had not received any training in this regard, were unfamiliar with the current regulations and did not feel fully prepared to address this issue in class. Accordingly, it is essential to warn against the dangers of implementing measures to prevent Islamic-inspired violent radicalism, without having first maintained a dialogue with the stakeholders. Otherwise, the results may be counterproductive.
Between authenticity and cognitive demand: Finding a balance in designing a video-based simulation in the context of mathematics teacher education by Elias Codreanu, Daniel Sommerhoff, Sina Huber, Stefan Ufer & Tina Seidel
A key challenge for teachers is the on-the-fly assessment of student learning. Video-based simulations may provide a tool for measuring assessment skills and a basis for learning environments in teacher education. Based on the framework for teaching practice by Grossman et al. (2009), considerations for designing video-based simulations that balance authenticity and cognitive demand are derived. Results show that participants perceived the developed simulation as authentic, were mostly able to rank students according to their overall mathematical argumentation skills and showed potential for learning in their detailed assessment of students. Thus, results indicate the internal validity of the video-based simulation.
How failure shapes teacher identities: Pre-service elementary school and mathematics teachers’ narrated possible selves by Sonja Lutovac
This study explored pre-service teachers’ possible teacher selves with respect to how they have been shaped by their experiences of math failure. The study contributes to identity research by applying the theory of possible selves and by comparing and contrasting narrated possible teacher selves of pre-service elementary school teachers and pre-service mathematics teachers. Three categories of possible selves were identified: teacher traits and actions, student strategies, and teacher self-development. How possible teacher selves may inform teacher identity development and teacher preparation in the context of teaching mathematics is discussed, as are methodological considerations for examining narrated possible selves.
Assessment of teachers’ gains across multiple historic site-based professional development programs by Christine Baron, Sherri Sklarwitz & M. Yianella Blanco
This paper reports on Y3/3-year project to assess teacher growth in historical knowledge, skills, and dispositions, at historic site-based teacher PD programs (HSBPD). This third year study, drawn from two different historic sites—Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello and George Washington’s Mount Vernon, we found a plurality of teachers evinced growth in historical thinking after exposure to on-going archeological and interpretive work at the sites. This is the first study to tie historical thinking gains to specific elements of teachers’ work with historic dssites. As part of the larger study, these results move us towards more generalizable understandings of HSBPD outcomes.
A Framework for Explaining Teachers’ Diagnostic Judgements by Cognitive Modeling (DiaCoM) by Katharina Loibl, Timo Leuders & Tobias Dörfler
Research on diagnostic competencies of teachers nowadays raises the question which person or situational characteristics moderate judgement accuracy. Beside this correlational approach, a stronger interest in understanding the cognitive processes involved in the genesis of diagnostic judgements has emerged. To address the theoretical gap regarding cognitive processes underlying diagnostic judgements, we propose a framework, called DiaCoM (Explaining Teachers’ Diagnostic Judgements by Cognitive Modeling). It aims at supporting (existing or envisioned) research that strives to test cognitively oriented explanations for processes and products of diagnostic judgements of teachers.
Student teachers’ responses to critical mentor feedback: A study of face-saving strategies in teaching placements by Cato R.P. Bjørndal
Despite much research on feedback in teaching placement, there is a limited number of interaction studies. Moreover, how student teachers respond to critical mentor feedback remains quite unmapped. This article aims to explore this interactional aspect through the analysis of 12 post-observation sessions. Critical feedback sequences are analysed by face-work theory (Goffman, 1967). Findings suggest that student teachers are deeply concerned about saving face when receiving critical feedback. Their strategies include “contradicting”, “withdrawing”, and “repairing” face, in addition to “emphasising a self-reflective and progressive face”. This article offers insights that may be helpful for communicating critical mentor feedback.
Saturate, situate, synthesize: Fostering preservice teachers’ conceptual and practical knowledge for learning to lead class discussion by Steven Z. Athanases, Sergio L. Sanchez & Lee M. Martin
To develop preservice teachers’ (PSTs’) knowledge and practice for complex teaching, a pedagogical innovation featured a design of saturate, situate, and synthesize. Small-group inquiry into English teaching challenges was guided by a course saturated with diverse resources, situated in K-12 classrooms, and supported by visualization tools and reflection for synthesis. A case of one diverse group analyzes how they developed knowledge and practice for facilitating discussion to support critical response to text. Supported by diverse resources and synthesizing tools, discourse analysis into their culturally and linguistically diverse students’ interactions, social dynamics, and perspectives shaped PSTs’ conceptions of students co-constructing discussion.
Exploring the relationship between teacher enjoyment of mathematics, their attitudes towards student struggle and instructional time amongst early years primary teachers by James Russo, Janette Bobis, Peter Sullivan, Ann Downton, Sharyn Livy, Melody McCormick & Sally Hughes
In this study we explored the relationship between teacher enjoyment of teaching mathematics, their attitudes towards student struggle, and the amount of time teachers spent teaching mathematics. Ninety-eight primary educators were surveyed regarding their attitudes and behaviors towards mathematics instruction. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that teacher enjoyment of teaching mathematics explained variance in both teacher attitudes towards student struggle and instructional time spent on mathematics, even after relevant educator characteristics were accounted for. Findings suggest that teacher enjoyment of teaching mathematics in the early primary years has important implications for both the quality and quantity of mathematics instruction students receive.
Developing a pedagogy of teacher education using self-study: A rhizomatic examination of negotiating learning and practice by Mats Hordvik, Ann MacPhail & Lars Tore Ronglan
This self-study of teacher education practices examines the processes of developing a pedagogy of teacher education. Drawing on multiple data sources (video and audio, reflective diary, and focus groups), we used concepts from rhizomatics to explore the question, “How does a teacher educator negotiate his learning and practice as he develops a pedagogy of teacher education?” We explicate the complexity of teacher education learning by showing how a conflux of interactive elements co-produce a teacher educator’s practice. This encourages us to introduce the metaphor of “orchestration” as a way of conceptualizing teacher educator practice and pedagogy.
Adaptation of lesson study in a Danish context: Displacements of teachers’ work and power relations by Charlotte Krog Skott & Hanne Møller
Though lesson study adaptations in the West have flourished, there is scarcity of associated culturally sensitive research. We contribute such research by exploring the conflicts that emerge when Danish teachers engage in lesson study. Using figured worlds, we analyze how teachers realize lesson study in their local setting through their dynamic orientations towards possibly conflicting worlds. We show how this realization challenges the teachers’ work and power relations and is influenced by broader issues of culture and power. We conclude that, in order to adapt lesson study in Denmark, it is necessary to address the overriding cultural characteristics we identify.
Can we improve how we screen applicants for initial teacher education? by Robert M. Klassen, Lisa E. Kim, Jade V. Rushby & Lisa Bardach
Identifying the best possible candidates for initial teacher education (ITE) programs is one of the first steps in building a strong teacher workforce. We report three phases of development and testing of a contextualized teaching-focused situational judgment test (SJT) designed to screen applicants at a large and competitive ITE program in the U.K. Results showed that the SJT was a reliable and predictive tool that enhanced existing screening methods. We suggest that using state-of-the art methods to help make admissions decisions could improve the reliability, validity, and fairness of selection into ITE.
School-based teacher collaboration: Different learning opportunities across various contexts by Loes de Jong, Jacobiene Meirink & Wilfried Admiraal
Teacher collaboration in secondary schools can form a fruitful context for teacher professional learning. The aim of this study is to understand collaboration in teacher groups given their teacher characteristics and school context. Using a cross case design, we study different teacher groups in multiple contexts. The findings confirm results of other studies on teacher collaboration, which argue that short-term collaboration initiatives are depending on the prior existence of collaborative cultures. Deprivatisation of practice provides opportunities to support professional learning in teacher groups, although more support is needed, especially when this is new to teachers.
The ‘balancing acts’ of building positive relationships with students: Secondary school teachers' perspectives in England and Spain by Irene García-Moya, Carmen Moreno & Fiona M. Brooks
This qualitative study explores teachers' views on the salience of relationships with students in their professional roles, and the benefits and potential tensions associated with relationship building. Thematic analyses of semi-structured interviews conducted in England and Spain with 20 secondary school teachers show an ambiguous status of relationship building, with diverse views on its centrality in teachers' professional roles. Teachers also describe the complex balancing acts they perform in relationships with students and express difficulties and uncertainties around well-being, authority, and student behaviour.
Science teachers' worldviews in the age of the digital revolution: Structural and content analysis by Dina Tsybulsky & Ilya Levin
Transformative agency in teacher education: Fostering professional digital competence by Lisbeth M. Brevik, Greta Björk Gudmundsdottir, Andreas Lund & Torunn Aanesland Strømme
In this qualitative study, we examined the worldviews that contemporary science teachers demonstrate in relation to the digital revolution. The main goal of the study was to gain insight into participants' worldviews as related to the digital revolution, specifically, the contents and structure of their worldviews.
The data collection method consisted of in-depth interviews with 30 in-service high-school science teachers. Study findings revealed three different categories of the way teachers perceived their own place and role vis-à-vis the digital revolution: 1) outside observers; 2) circumspect participants; 3) conscientious participants.
Teaching content in practice: Investigating rehearsals of social studies discussions by Sarah Schneider Kavanagh, Chauncey Monte-Sano, Abby Reisman, Brad Fogo, Sarah McGrew & Peter Cipparone
Despite evidence of its benefits, discussion remains rare in history/social science classrooms. To address this problem, communities of teacher educators (TEs) have begun supporting novices to approximate discussion facilitation. Some scholars are concerned that this turn to practice will come at the cost of content preparation. Focusing specifically on rehearsals of discussion facilitation in three history/social science methods courses, our analysis investigates whether, how, and in what ways TEs worked on content while engaging novice teachers in practicing discussion facilitation. We found that TEs found ways to work simultaneously on content and practice during rehearsals of discussion facilitation.
The Dispositions towards Loving Pedagogy (DTLP) scale: Instrument development and demographic analysis by Lim Chin Yin, Tim Loreman, Rosadah Abd Majid & Aliza Alias
This study aimed to refine and validate the Dispositions towards Loving Pedagogy (DTLP) Scale and to ascertain the views of pre-service teachers on the aspects of loving pedagogy. The participants were 114 pre-service teachers from the Concordia University of Edmonton Education After-Degree program. As a result of the analysis, the scale was reduced to 29 items across six factors. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient for the entire scale was 0.90. Based on this initial sample the DTLP was shown to be a suitable scale to measure the love-based pedagogy of the conceptual and practical aspects of loving pedagogy, although further testing should be conducted on more diverse groups.
Teacher's visual attention when scaffolding collaborative mathematical problem solving by Eeva Haataja, Enrique Garcia Moreno-Esteva, Visajaani Salonen, Anu Laine, Miika Toivanen & Markku S. Hannula
Teachers' role in scaffolding students' problem-solving process is crucial. New technology provides researchers with possibilities to explore this aspect of teaching from the viewpoint of teacher attention. The aim of this mixed-method case study was to investigate the relation between a teacher's scaffolding intentions and his gaze behavior. The data was collected during a mathematics lesson using mobile gaze tracking devices, stationary video cameras, and interview. The results show that the teacher's scaffolding intentions affected his gaze targets significantly and that mobile gaze tracking can provide novel insight to situational processes of teacher-student interaction.
Relevant classroom events for teachers: A study of student characteristics, student behaviors, and associated teacher emotions by Janneke A. de Ruiter, Astrid M.G. Poorthuis & Helma M.Y. Koomen
To gain insight in relevant classroom events for teachers, this study asked 218 elementary school teachers to describe the most relevant event of the past workday, involving an individual student. Male students and students with relatively high externalizing, antisocial behavioral attributes were overrepresented in both positively and negatively valued events. Independent coders classified all student behaviors described in the event based on a newly developed coding system. Teachers described more social-emotional and relational student behaviors than achievement or motivational behaviors. Hostility and aggression towards the teacher was the strongest predictor of teachers’ enjoyment, anger, anxiety, and self- and other-related emotions.
Using uncertainty as a learning opportunity during pre-lesson conferences in the teaching practicum by Oana Costache, Eva Becker, Fritz Staub & Tim Mainhard
This qualitative study examined transcripts and video-data from 32 pre-lesson conferences of 14 cooperating teacher-student teacher dyads during the teaching practicum. It used a linguistic approach to capture student teacher uncertainty, while also considering their teaching experience and pedagogical content knowledge. Cooperating teachers' responses to uncertainty were explored in relation to student teachers’ instructional quality (as perceived by the student teachers and their pupils). This study illustrates the potential of using uncertainty as a learning opportunity and suggests new possibilities for how cooperating teachers could constructively respond to uncertainty in mentoring conversations.
Teacher educators’ approaches to teaching and connections with their perceptions of the closeness of their research and teaching by Yanling Cao, Liisa Postareff, Sari Lindblom-Ylänne & Auli Toom
This study explores teacher educators’ perceptions of their approaches to teaching and the closeness of their research and teaching. A total of 115 participants completed a questionnaire. The results showed that these teacher educators perceived information transmission as an element of the student-focused approach to teaching. Three clusters were identified which mirrored different kinds of combinations of the teacher- and student-focused approaches to teaching. The results further revealed that these clusters were related to how closely teacher educators considered their teaching and research to be related to each other.
Academic majors of social studies teachers and student achievement in the U.S. by Corey Savage
The education of social studies teachers has been understudied at a large scale, relative to other subject areas. This study estimated whether the undergraduate and/or graduate majors of social studies teachers are associated with student achievement in civics, U.S. history, and geography. Broad categorizations of social studies-related majors were not associated with student achievement. However, a graduate major in political science for students' teachers was positively and significantly associated with student achievement in civics, and an undergraduate major in geography/geography education was negatively associated with student achievement in civics and U.S. history. Implications for policy and research are discussed.
Advancing student teachers’ learning in the teaching practicum through Content-Focused Coaching: A field experiment by Eva S. Becker, Monika Waldis & Fritz C. Staub
A pivotal role of cooperating teachers is to assist student teachers' planning, enacting and reflecting of lessons during the teaching practicum. This study evaluated training sessions in elements of Content-Focused Coaching: 59 cooperating teachers were randomly allocated to a training session in: a) pre-lesson conferences for joint lesson planning, b) core issues for lesson designs, c) both elements or d) another educational topic (control group). Effects on the quality of collaborative exchange in lesson conferences, student teachers’ competency gains, and instructional quality (as reported by pupils) were examined during a three-week teaching practicum. Implications for professional development programs are discussed.
Committing, engaging and negotiating: Teachers’ stories about creating shared spaces for co-teaching by Anna Rytivaara, Jonna Pulkkinen & Catriona L. de Bruin
The study examined teachers’ stories on developing co-teaching partnerships. The narratives of three two-teacher teams were used to illustrate joint professional landscapes. The teams narrated the development process as one in which commitment, engagement and negotiation were the key elements in shaping their professional landscapes. The findings indicate wide variation in the role of shared understanding and related engagement in co-constructing co-teaching practices.
Approximations in English language arts: Scaffolding a shared teaching practice by Kristine M. Schutz, Katie A. Danielson & Julie Cohen
Recent research highlights the importance of providing teacher candidates with opportunities to approximate practice. Less attention focuses on tools teacher educators use within and surrounding approximations to focus candidates’ attention on features of practice. This multi-case study investigates how three teacher educators use different approximations in ways that strategically reduce the complexity of learning to teach and scaffold the development of practice. Data indicate teacher educators capitalized on four tools that scaffolded and shaped approximations into spaces for co-constructing shared understandings of practice. These tools include: instructional activities, representations of practice, planning templates, and specified texts and instructional goals.
Gendered emotion management and teacher outcomes in secondary school teaching: A review by Rebecca E. Olson, Jordan McKenzie, Kathy A. Mills, Roger Patulny, Alberto Bellocchi & Fiona Caristo
This systematic search and review of international literature (1979–2017) finds links between emotion management and gender (in 1/2 the studies), and teaching attrition outcomes (1/3). Results contextualise these connections, suggesting female teachers use deep acting strategies, though experience more emotional exhaustion and unpleasant emotions. Male teachers practice distancing and surface acting, and experience depersonalisation, but also success in controlling disruptions and stimulating subject interest. Studies are limited by self-reported data and omission of school context, but highlight important teacher organisational identifications, suggesting future research use observational methods for understanding emotion management as an embedded, interactionist phenomenon.
Using network analysis methods to investigate how future teachers conceptualize the links between the domains of teacher knowledge by Mika Koponen, Mervi A. Asikainen, Antti Viholainen & Pekka E. Hirvonen
In this article we present a new approach to investigating teacher knowledge. The essay data related to Finnish future teachers’ (N = 18) perceptions of the “knowledge required for teaching mathematics” were transformed into a network. We classified the knowledge topics using the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) framework and examined the relationships between the issues raised with the aid of network analysis. According to the results, the future teachers see the six MKT domains in a hierarchical sequence. As it is not subject specific, this approach is also applicable in the investigation of teacher knowledge of other subjects.
Rethinking ‘cultural activities’: An examination of how teachers utilised student voice as a pedagogical tool in multicultural schools by Nikolett Szelei, Luís Tinoca & Ana Sofia Pinho
This article explores the activities teachers developed in a school cluster in Portugal in order to address cultural diversity, and particularly, how students' voices were used as pedagogical tools. Findings show unsettled rather than unified strategies, building on cultural artefacts, universal/individualised topics, and tackling stereotyping, discrimination and racism. However, student voice as a pedagogical tool seemed to be missing, possibly leaving pupils misrepresented and disengaged. It is suggested that the element between teachers’ good intentions and contradictory practices in pedagogies for cultural diversity might be the absence of student voice work in the decision-making process on representation, identification and participation.
The hierarchical (not fluid) nature of preservice secondary science teachers' perceptions of their science teacher identity by Raquel Chung-Parsons & Janelle M. Bailey
This qualitative cross-case study explores three US preservice secondary science teachers' conceptions of their science teacher identities and contexts within which they draw upon those science identities for teaching. Grounded in a figured worlds framework, data analysis revealed that participants view their science teacher identity separate from their science identity, with only the latter being part of their “core” identity. Participants view their teacher identity as dominant, and draw upon their science identity's cultural tools in only two teaching contexts—teaching science content and analyzing student work to facilitate learning. Implications for teacher preparation programs are considered.
Teaching diversity in citizenship education: Context-related teacher understandings and practices by Işıl Sincer, Sabine Severiens & Monique Volman
Many secondary schools address diversity as an aspect of citizenship education. This paper examines how secondary teachers' understandings and practices concerning teaching about diversity are related to school contextual factors, such as student composition and educational track. Semi-structured interviews with 17 teachers at three schools revealed that teachers’ understandings and practices regarding diversity are related to their perceptions of the needs and capabilities of their student population. However, teachers rarely addressed diversity in terms of deep-rooted issues, such as inequality and power relations. The paper concludes with implications for teachers and schools and provides suggestions for future research.
“I'd rather beg for forgiveness than ask for permission”: Sexuality education teachers' mediated agency and resistance by Marilyn Preston
This study explores sexuality education teachers' identities and examines the ways in which teachers' experiences mediate their agency and resistance in classrooms. Using grounded theory methodology, the study explores the identities and experiences of school-based sexuality education teachers throughout the United States. Findings suggest that the teachers rely on a unique sense of identity in order to justify challenging the regulatory and policy limitations to their curricula. The study illustrates how agency is mediated by individual social location and experience.
3a. European Journal of Teacher Education Open Access ArticlesClick to read
Developing teachers’ digital identity: towards the pedagogic design principles of digital environments to enhance students’ learning in the 21st century by Irina Engeness
Digitalisation provides valuable opportunities for learning; however, it imposes demands on teachers. Teachers are expected not only to be profound users of educational technologies but also to engage in the design of digital environments such as online courses, learning management systems, and mobile applications. This article argues that originated in cultural-historical traditions, Galperin’s pedagogical theory might offer an approach to outline the pedagogic design principles of digital environments to empower teachers to develop their digital identity, enhance students’ learning and their development as learners. Two empirical snapshots are presented to exemplify the use of Galperin’s theory to design assignments and modules in digital learning environments. By engaging in learning and design of digital environments based on the suggested design principles, teachers and students may reposition themselves as active agents in knowledge practices to nurture teacher digital identity and enhance students’ capacity in learning to learn.
Differences in teacher education programmes and their outcomes across Didaktik and curriculum traditions by Tobias Christoph Werler & Armend Tahirsylaj
Teacher education is of vital importance for what teachers are capable to do for their pupils, but little is known about student teachers’ pedagogical knowledge. The Didaktik and the curriculum traditions are two main education approaches underpinning formal schooling and teacher education programmes (TEPs) in the Western world. The main difference between the two traditions lies in the content and objectives of teacher education, which are either theoretical or action-oriented. Two questions are addressed quantitatively: How do teacher education programmes and their outcomes vary across Didaktik and curriculum traditions? How do opportunities to learn and beliefs about teaching methods affect mathematical content knowledge (MCK) and mathematical pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) scores? Empirical data from the Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) are used, with samples from Norway, Germany, Switzerland, and the US. The study offers alternative explanations for variations of TEPs’ outcomes within the Western world.
Enhancing authentic learning experiences in teacher education through 360-degree videos and theoretical lectures: reducing preservice teachers’ anxiety by H. Theelen, A. van den Beemt & P. den Brok
Preservice teachers (PSTs) often experience professional anxiety when managing their classrooms. These feelings of anxiety can be reduced, and their feelings of self-efficacy increased by training PSTs’ interpersonal competence. This study used authentic learning experiences combining theoretical lectures and 360-degree videos watched with virtual reality headsets, to train their interpersonal competence. Participants of this study were 141 first year PSTs of a teacher education institute in the Netherlands. Results showed that the video-lecture combination led to a reduced professional anxiety and increased self-efficacy. PSTs’ self-perceptions of their own expected interpersonal behaviour indicated that PSTs thought they would be more in control in the actual classroom after the intervention. PSTs attributed these results to exemplary teacher behaviour shown in the 360-degree videos.
Developing teacher in-service education through a professional development plan: modelling the process by Minna Körkkö, Marja-Riitta Kotilainen, Sanna Toljamo & Tuija Turunen
This study investigated the process of implementing professional development plans (PDPs) as a tool for teachers’ continuing professional learning in Finnish Lapland. The PDP model was developed through two cycles following a design-based research (DBR) approach. The data were collected by interviewing teachers and principals, and then analysed thematically. The results showed that factors affecting the PDP process related mainly to structural and strategical work in schools. The lack of clear guidelines and support from principals and colleagues, as well as the absence of discussions on school strategy and its meaning for teachers’ professional development, negatively affected the PDP process. As a result, schools’ strategic planning only vaguely guided individual PDP processes. The results suggest that, for the successful implementation of a PDP process, schools’ strategic planning should be more clearly integrated with teachers’ PDPs in order to enhance their personal professional development in meaningful ways.
Status versus nature of work: pre-service language teachers envisioning their future profession by Maria Ruohotie-Lyhty & Anne Pitkänen-Huhta
Considering the central role of identity in understanding teacher development, this paper addresses the ways in which pre-service language teachers envision their identities as future professionals. The paper is based on a qualitative study of 61 students’ visualisations of their future work during their first semester in language teacher education. The visualisations and accompanying descriptive texts were analysed using the principles of qualitative content analysis. In the analysis, two different ways of perceiving future professions, and thereby identities as professionals, were identified. The first was a nature-oriented perspective that focused on desired characteristics of the profession, its activities, environment and social relationships, and the other a status-oriented perspective that focused on the societal status of the profession. The nature-oriented perspective was further divided into three subcategories that illustrated different career options. The implications of the different ideal professional selves for teacher education are also highlighted.
Adapting to online teaching during COVID-19 school closure: teacher education and teacher competence effects among early career teachers in Germany by Johannes König, Daniela J. Jäger-Biela & Nina Glutsch
As in many countries worldwide, as part of the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown schools in Germany closed in March 2020 and only partially re-opened in May. Teachers were confronted with the need to adapt to online teaching. This paper presents the results of a survey of early career teachers conducted in May and June 2020. First, we analysed the extent to which they maintained social contact with students and mastered core teaching challenges. Second, we analysed potential factors (school computer technology, teacher competence such as their technological pedagogical knowledge, and teacher education learning opportunities pertaining to digital teaching and learning). Findings from regression analyses show that information and communication technologies (ICT) tools, particularly digital teacher competence and teacher education opportunities to learn digital competence, are instrumental in adapting to online teaching during COVID-19 school closures. Implications are discussed for the field of teacher education and the adoption of ICT by teachers.
Teachers as researchers and the issue of practicality by Hanna Westbroek, Fred Janssen, Ilona Mathijsen & Walter Doyle
Practitioner research should be sufficiently trustworthy and useful. We argue, however, that although criteria of trustworthiness are rather well developed, criteria of usefulness are not. As a result, the long-term impact of practitioner research is rather disappointing because, we contend, it tends to lack practicality. We used theories of classroom ecology, goal systems and how people make decisions in complex situations, to conceptualise practicality from a teacher’s perspective. By applying our theoretical framework to the case of Jane we provide insight into how and why trustworthiness and usefulness can be met while practicality is typically undermined. Jane conducted an excellent practitioner research project in the context of her teacher training under what would be considered ‘ideal’ conditions, but the long-term impact on her teaching practice was low. We conclude with suggestions for making practitioner research more attuned to practicality, i.e. the nature of practice and practical decision making.
The importance of the start-up phase in school-based development for learning and enduring change by May Britt Postholm
This study focuses on two schools taking part in a school-based development project in Norway. The research was guided by the following research question: How does the start-up phase in school-based development influence learning and enduring change in school? Few studies focus on the start-up phase. The purpose of the current study is to show how this beginning of a local school development process can influence learning and enduring change.The study shows that the start-up phase most likely can influence learning and enduring change, and that teacher educators must take the needs of leaders and teachers into consideration and help them become aware of their own practice. Furthermore, teacher educators should contribute with knowledge throughout the process. At the same time they must be aware that new knowledge alone is not enough to enhance learning in school, but structure, culture and content need to be in interplay.
Finnish teacher educators’ preferences for their professional development – quantitative exploration by Reijo Byman, Riitta Jyrhämä, Katariina Stenberg, Katriina Maaranen, Sara Sintonen & Heikki Kynäslahti
Education makes a difference and teacher educators are an important part of that circle. However, there is very little research done in Finland on teacher educators’ professional development. The main purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of three scales that measure the components of teacher educators’ professional development, namely (a) developmental needs, (b) preferred ways of fulfiling those needs and (c) hindrances to fulfiling developmental needs. The differences between different occupational groups were also discussed. The survey was distributed in May 2019 to all eight Finnish universities that offer teacher education. The final sample size was 354. Using scale development techniques, we succeeded in generating items to all three inventories. We also tested the psychometric properties and the construct validity of the inventories. Our study revealed that teacher educators are not a homogenous group. Different occupational groups have different professional development interests.
Migrant teachers and the negotiation of a (new) teaching identity by Elin Ennerberg & Catarina Economou
Employment of newly arrived migrants can be seen as one of the key aspects to managing both national labour market needs and the inclusion of individuals in both work and society. In Sweden, efforts to manage recent migration – for example, from Syria – has resulted in various labour market ‘fast tracks’ that aim to facilitate labour market integration. In this article, we consider how individual migrants attempt to negotiate the new national demands of professional identity to become teachers in Sweden by following a Swedish introduction course to teaching. The study builds on qualitative interviews and fieldwork following two different cohorts of students.
Educating Norwegian preservice teachers for the multicultural classroom – what knowledge do student teachers and mentor teachers express? by Wenche Thomassen & Elaine Munthe
This study is a contribution to the global discussion on how to prepare preservice teachers for diversity. Analyses are based on responses from national samples of pre-service teachers in their 4th year of teacher education (N = 654), and of collaborating mentor teachers responsible for the supervision of preservice teachers during field practice (N = 340).
Each group responded to two questionnaire surveys sent out digitally which covered questions about their perceived competence and possibilities to learn about teaching in linguistically diverse classrooms.
Results indicate variation in possibilities to learn, as well as perceptions of competence needed among both groups. Based on our results, we propose questions essential for development in teacher education programme:
What do teachers need to learn about educational laws concerned with student`s rights?
How can programs ensure that preservice teachers get experience from linguistically diverse classrooms? How can teacher education programs ensure that preservice teachers develop critical reflection?
Towards a better understanding of psychological needs of student teachers during field experiences by Benjamin Dreer
Field experiences aim at immersing student teachers in authentic work tasks and conditions of teachers. However, specific psychological needs of the teaching workforce are not considered when studying the fulfilment of student teachers’ psychological needs. This paper proposes a four-dimensional theoretical framework incorporating both basic and specific psychological needs. A diary study is presented, which measures the fulfilment of the hypothesised needs at five intervals during a ten-day field experience. The average fulfilment rates and development trends show differences among the four dimensions, suggesting the presence of lower- and higher-order needs. Significant correlations between need fulfilment and success indicators, such as learner satisfaction, learning gain, teacher self-efficacy and level of self-reflection, are also found. The results highlight the relevance of high rates of need fulfilment right from the start of the field experience.
Stimulating teachers’ inquiring attitude in academic and professional teacher education programmes by Jan Baan , Lisa Gaikhorst & Monique Volman
This study investigated differences between the inquiring attitudes of student teachers who followed an academic programme and student teachers who followed a professional programme in teacher education. Differences between students were assessed through a survey among 260 students and interviews with nine students. Differences between the curricula of both programmes were explored through a curriculum analysis. In particular, academic students appeared to have a more inquiring attitude than professional students. They had a more critical attitude towards classroom situations and a higher motivation to use and perform research. Teacher research was integrated in the curricula of both academic and professional programmes. However, the academic programme addressed a larger variety of forms of research and the focus on research was more consistent throughout the programme than in the professional programme.
Teacher education for inclusive education: a framework for developing collaboration for the inclusion of students with support plans by Órla Ní Bhroin & Fiona King
A study was conducted to explore the impact of professional development related to the individual education plan (IEP) process on teachers’ understanding and practices in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). This paper reports on part of that research, focusing on teachers’ collaborative practices in the IEP process. In the RoI, teachers working as special education teachers (SET) can avail of State-funded professional development through an award-bearing model provided by universities. The study combined survey of three cohorts of teachers who undertook this professional development course in one university with follow-up focus groups, observation and documentary analysis in five schools. Challenges to effective team functioning were identified in relation to the constructs of joint instructional work, communication, and values and ethics. Building on these constructs, this paper proposes a framework for developing competencies in collaborative practice for inclusion of students with IEPs with implications for practice and for teacher educators.
Teacher preparation for urban teaching: a multiple case study of three primary teacher education programmes by Lisa Gaikhorst, Jeffrey Post, Virginie März & Inti Soeterik
Teacher educators wonder how to prepare student teachers for urban teaching. Beginning teachers in urban environments experience multiple challenges, such as responding appropriately to language differences and cultural diversity. This study aims to provide insight into how Dutch teachers are prepared for teaching in urban schools. A multiple case study, including qualitative analysis of curriculum documents and interviews with programme directors, teacher educators, and students (N = 18) from three primary teacher education programmes, showed that several aspects of urban teaching, such as considering social and ethnic differences between children and (in)equality, were not addressed, or only to a limited degree. The programmes prepared teachers for urban teaching in different ways, including (compulsory) internships at urban schools or special assignments around urban themes. Internships had particularly high value for students, programme directors, and teacher educators. Results of the study can be used to develop adequate preparation for beginning urban teachers.
From special to inclusive education policies in Austria – developments and implications for schools and teacher education by Tobias Buchner & Michelle Proyer
This paper is concerned with the developments of inclusive education policies and their impact on teacher education in Austria today. As we argue, most policies concerning inclusive education are still reduced to a focus on disability. Such an approach can be explained, but not legitimised, by the historical development of the education of students with disabilities, which engendered specific tendencies in the evolution of policies of inclusive education and teacher education for inclusion. This policy evolution can be divided into three phases, which we analyse in detail in this paper: (1) the building of the special school system (the 1960s to mid 1980s), (2) establishing ‘integrative education’ structures and practices (mid 1980s – mid 2000s), and (3) efforts to make the Austrian education system more inclusive (2007 until today). The recent phase included a reform of teacher education for inclusive education, which, on the one hand, supports specific aspects of inclusive education, but, on the other hand, is still influenced by individual model discourses, rooted in the 1960s, such as binary groupings of students (dis/abled).
Providing a good start. Concerns of beginning secondary school teachers and support provided by Rian Aarts, Quinta Kools & Rita Schildwacht
The first years in the teaching profession are often a challenge and most beginning teachers struggle with concerns. To support beginning teachers, induction programmes have been developed which should lead to an acceleration of growth in teaching skills and prevent drop-out. In this study, we explore the concerns of beginning teachers in secondary education and the support provided. Nineteen teachers in their first and 16 teachers in their second year of employment were questioned. Results show that first year teachers are mainly concerned about their lessons, but later the focus is moving inward to their professional teacher role and outward to the school organisation. The concerns of beginning teachers are being dealt with in a variety of support activities without a direct link between the two. Nevertheless, teachers seem to be able to cope if provided with sufficient support, a coach they can relate to and possibilities for informal feedback.
Supporting newly-qualified teachers’ professional development and perseverance in secondary education: On the role of informal learning by Stéphane Colognesi, Catherine Van Nieuwenhoven & Simon Beausaert
High percentages of newly qualified teachers (NQTs) drop out during their first 5 years in the classroom. Often, formal support systems are put in place to overcome ‘practice shock’. However, in this research, it was hypothesised that it is not the formal support structure put in place that determines whether starting teachers feel satisfied in their job and show perseverance but rather the amount of knowledge exchange that takes place. This was confirmed by the results of a first quantitative study. Then, a follow-up qualitative study showed that having the principal in the role of a mentor is often experienced as a mechanism of control or evaluation. Starting teachers prefer to choose their own mentor. They prefer their mentor not to be a superior but a close colleague whom they trust, who is teaching the same course in the same year. Our results have especially implications for onboarding of novice teachers. Since social informal learning (e.g. through the exchange of feedback with colleagues) benefits newly qualified teachers, it is important to create a safe and warm learning climate in which knowledge exchange can flourish. Also, NQTs should be given the opportunity to choose their mentor.
Pre–service teachers’ generic and subject-specific lesson-planning skills: On learning adaptive teaching during initial teacher education by Johannes König, Albert Bremerich-Vos, Christiane Buchholtz, Ilka Fladung & Nina Glutsch
In this article, we analyse pre-service language teachers’ written plans for demonstration lessons in Germany. Our objective is to reconstruct and quantify generic and subject-specific planning decisions related to adaptive teaching, specified as the ways in which a lesson’s main task fits the learning group’s cognitive level. The focus is on aspects of generic planning featured in subject specific planning rather than very specific subject planning that reflects the unique aspect of that particular subject discipline. The sample comprises pre-service teachers during induction, surveyed at two time points. The findings show that planning skills can be measured in a reliable way and that subject-specific decisions are more difficult to implement into planning than generic decisions. Skills increase substantially during induction and can be explained by institutional and individual factors using regression analysis. Implications for the design of learning opportunities in teacher education and perspectives for future research are discussed.
Teacher educators’ predictability and student selection paradigms in entrance examinations for the Finnish Primary School Teacher Education programme by Ville Mankki, Marita Mäkinen & Pekka Räihä
This article investigates the perceived and actual predictability of teacher educators working as assessors in entrance examinations for the Finnish Primary School Teacher Education (PSTE) programme. The section examining perceived predictability was conducted as a survey. The data for actual predictability, containing student teachers’ entrance examination scores and student achievements, was collected from the student register. The findings indicate that although teacher educators consider themselves able to predict applicants’ performance in the PSTE programme, their actual predictability in entrance examinations was poor. The assessments predicted only slightly student teachers’ study pace in the PSTE programme, while better scores in entrance examinations predicted, in fact, weaker grades in studies. Teacher educators also conform to hidden quotas based on Finnish student selection paradigms in awarding better entrance examination scores to male and older applicants. The findings highlight teacher educators’ need for more structured professional learning in a gatekeeping context.
Beginning teachers’ opportunities for enacting informal teacher leadership: perceptions of teachers and school management staff members by Jacobiene Meirink, Anna Van Der Want, Monika Louws, Paulien Meijer, Helma Oolbekkink-Marchand & Harmen Schaap
Teacher leadership is often connected to experienced teachers as it is assumed that a certain level of knowledge and experience is needed. Informal teacher leadership, however, can also be expected from beginning teachers. The aim of this study is to study beginning teachers’ opportunities for enacting leadership. Twelve pairs, consisting of one school management staff member (e.g. principal, administrators, head of departments) and one beginning teacher, were interviewed. For the analyses, three codes describing levels of leadership (witness, participation, ownership) were used to label the situations reported by the novices and staff members in which they experienced and observed leadership. The findings of this study show that it is possible for beginning teachers to enact leadership roles. They do, however, need to develop knowledge and skills for this purpose. To optimise these leadership competencies, teacher education programmes could consider including this more explicitly in their curriculum.
Student teachers’ motives for participating in the teacher training program: a qualitative comparison between continuing students and switch students by Evelyne E.M. Meens & Anouke W.E.A. Bakx
Over the last few decades, the Netherlands has been experiencing that numerous student teachers (i.e., pre-service teachers) leave teacher training after a short period of time. To address this attrition problem the current study aimed to gain insight into student teachers’ motives for enrolling, continuing or withdrawing from a primary teacher education program, and compare these motives between continuing students and switch students before and after their enrolment. Twenty-two Dutch student teachers (continuing students: N = 10; 70.0% females, Mage = 20.00, switch students: N = 12; 66.7% females, Mage = 20.83) participated in this interview study. Several motives regarding the teacher education program were identified. Both groups primarily cited intrinsic motives for enrolling in the program. Disappointment in the profession, as well as content of the program and difficulty level of the program, were the main motives to leave. Enthusiasm about the profession and the social environment were the primary motives to continue in the program.
Evidence for measuring teachers’ core practices by M. Van Der Schaaf, B. Slof, L. Boven & A. De Jong
Teaching is a complex profession and feedback on teacher practices is needed for teachers’ development. Many instruments are available to measure teacher practices, but little is known about their quality. This systematic review aimed to gain insight into the quality of instruments available to measure teacher practices. A systematic review based on ERIC, PsychINFO, and Web of Science databases (2000–2016) was conducted. In total 96 journal articles were included, describing 127 measurement instruments. The instruments were mainly self-evaluation questionnaires, focussing on activities during teaching. Most evidence was provided for the validity and impact of the instruments. Evidence for utility was generally low. Questionnaire data gathered from students seems to best meet the quality requirements. It is discussed to evaluate teachers with different measurement instruments to provide a rich perspective of their practices.
Boundaries as a coping strategy: emotional labour and relationship maintenance in distressing teacher education situations by Henrik Lindqvist, Maria Weurlander, Annika Wernerson & Robert Thornberg
Student teachers have to cope with distressing emotions during teacher education. Coping is important in relation to both attrition and bridging the gap between being a student teacher and starting work. The data consist of semi-structured interviews with 25 student teachers, which were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory framework. The aim of the current study was to examine student teachers’ perspectives on distressing situations during teacher education, as well as how boundaries were established as a way of coping with emotions related to these situations. The findings show that the student teachers’ main concern was to make sense of the imbalance between resources and the demands placed by distressing situations. As a coping strategy, student teachers established professional boundaries linked to emotional labour and relationship maintenance.
The research circle - a tool for preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development by Annika Elm & Ingrid Nordqvist
The article explores a professional learning programme, a research circle, in which preschool teachers and researchers collaborate on content relating to sustainable development, science and technology. It investigates how collaborations between preschool teachers and researchers can contribute to professional learning and preschool development. The research focuses on experiences of participation in research circles and makes use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). The data consists of twelve preschool teachers’ written documentation as preparation for seminars in the research circle and semi-structured interviews with eight preschool teachers. The analysis explores three bodies of social and educational change: individuals, teams and organisations. The overall conclusion is that participation in a research circle support preschool teachers to become more aware of their own practices, address issues and challenges and make improvements in a collaborative and reflective way, it is a useful tool for preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development.
The development of an instrument to measure teachers’ inquiry habit of mind by Karel Kreijns, Marjan Vermeulen, Arnoud Evers & Celeste Meijs
In the present study the construct inquiry of mind explored and an instrument to measure it is proposed. Using three different samples, explorative and confirmative factor analyses were performed, resulting in three empirical dimensions that correspond to the three theoretical dimensions: 1) ‘value deep understanding,’ 2) ‘reserve judgment and tolerate ambiguity,’ and 3) ‘taking a range of perspectives and posing increasingly focused questions.’ Our findings suggest the teachers’ inquiry habit of mind scale has good psychometric properties making it useful not only for research that investigates teachers’ research attitude and intention to do research but also as an evaluation tool for the development of an inquiry habit of mind in both student teachers and teacher educators (in teacher education) as well as in experienced teachers (participating in professional development).
Is teacher attrition a poor estimate of the value of teacher education? A Swedish case by Rickard Carlsson, Per Lindqvist & Ulla Karin Nordänger
Far from all who complete teacher education end up working as teachers throughout their entire career. At first sight the value of teacher education, in terms of efficiency, seems to be a failure. In the present article we argue that teacher attrition, when defined as whether one is working as teacher or not, is a too blunt measure to gauge whether teacher education has been valuable. With a unique dataset, where we have detailed information on 87 Swedish teacher graduates’ working life across 23 years, we can consider whether activities and/or experiences point to an apparent use of teacher education. In conclusion, we find that in order to get informative estimates of its value it is important to consider it from different perspectives and to consider attrition related to the total working time spent in educational settings across a career rather than percentage leaving teaching after a set of years.
The supportive character of teacher education triadic conferences: detailing the formative feedback conveyed by Lotta Jons
This study explored feedback conveyed in nine triadic conferences in teacher education practicum. The supportive character of formative feedback was explored in detail by employing a framework that combines two conceptualisations of feedback.The study depicted feedback directed backwards, upwards or forward and focusing performance, strategies, self-regulation or personal characteristics inside a framework of self-regulated learning. Findings show the teacher student to be more active in feed up, feed back and feed forward than previous studies have shown. Furthermore the conversations were found to be characterised by joint problem-solving in which all three parties focused on the student’s professional teacher-becoming. In conclusion, the findings indicate a feedback practice characterised by ‘sustainable’ feedback that scaffolds students’ self-assessing competence while fostering student self-reflexivity and self-regulation.
The shaping of pre-service teachers’ professional knowledge base through assessments by Lena Sjöberg
Today teachers and their professional knowledge base have become important, since knowledge has become a pivotal aspect of modern society. This study investigates the shaping of pre-service teachers’ knowledge base by studying the assessment practice in teacher education programmes for primary level teachers. The analytical focus lies on pedagogic discourses and what skills and competencies are legitimized in and through the assessment tasks. The results show that Swedish primary school pre-service teachers are primarily trained to work with subject didactics, and focus is placed on being able to plan, carry out, and evaluate teaching in light of descriptive and normative learning theories, as well as the current curricula. One possible effect of this strong subject didactic focus is that teachers are not sufficiently trained to critically analyse the conditions determining their work, especially in view of current global and local policy trends.
The value of CK, PK, and PCK in professional development programs predicted by the progressive beliefs of elementary school teachers by Ming-Yueh Hwang, Jon-Chao Hong & Yung-Wei Hao
Teachers’ professional development (PD) receives a great deal of attention in current educational settings. However, research has shown that many teachers hesitate to attend PD programs. In this study, data were collected from 270 elementary school teachers and were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to examine their intention to attend the weekly PD programs on Wednesday afternoons (PDWAP). The results revealed that the participants value the acquisition of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) more than they value pedagogical knowledge (PK) and content knowledge (CK) because of the expected usefulness of each for teaching. Moreover, the results of this study have implications for PD program design, and call for a stronger focus on PCK.
Becoming interested during teacher education by Matti Rautiainen, Marja Mäensivu & Tiina Nikkola
In this article we examine first-year student teachers’ possibilities to become interested in professional issues in teacher education. We study the phenomenon of becoming interested among first-year student teachers via three different kinds of data. We analysed our data through John Dewey’s definition of interest, where a person has an interest if s/he is actively keen on some object that has personal meaning for her/him. According to our data, student teachers adopt an object of interest that teacher educators provide. Learners found it difficult to find the objects of interests by themselves, and it was exceptional for them to find personal meaning and an active state of interest. This is problematic because studying may be performance-oriented without the conditions of interest conceptualised by Dewey. Through our study we also discuss a theoretical approach which would help understand the mechanism behind becoming interested.
Ways of composing teaching teams and their impact on teachers’ perceptions about collaboration by Mathias Krammer, Peter Rossmann, Angela Gastager & Barbara Gasteiger-Klicpera
The present study examined the impact of teacher team composition on characteristics and attributes regarded as necessary for effective cooperative teaching. The study focused on potential differences between self-selected teacher teams and teams composed by the school administration. The central assumptions were that teachers working in self-selected teacher teams show more positive ratings of enjoyment, shared responsibility, job satisfaction and collective self-efficacy expectations than teachers who worked in institutionally composed teams. In order to investigate these hypotheses, an online survey was created. 321 language arts teachers participated in the survey. MANCOVA revealed significant differences in the dimensions ‘shared responsibility’ and ‘enjoyment with the co-teaching process’, where teachers from self-selected teaching teams showed significantly more positive ratings. These results support the assumption that self-selection of the team-mate is helpful for establishing compatible teaching teams, but does not necessarily lead to a higher quality of collaborative teaching.
Changes in sensed dis/continuity in the development of student teachers throughout teacher education by Martine M. van Rijswijk, Larike H. Bronkhorst, Sanne F. Akkerman & Jan van Tartwijk
Initiatives aimed at supporting student teachers for entering and staying in the teaching profession require a better understanding of the nature of student teachers’ development as it unfolds during teacher education. Accordingly, we focused on changes in the extent to which student teachers perceive and expect dis/continuity in their development during the programme. The design of the study included 25 authentic supervision dialogues/conversations, enabling the analysis of development within and across six student teachers’ developmental trajectories. Findings showed that student teachers’ initial sense of dis/continuity is not necessarily predictive of progress and (un)successful completion of teacher education. Furthermore, sensed dis/continuity varies differently over time in student teachers, both in terms of when it changes as well as in terms of with what types of past perceptions and future expectations these changes occur.
Why become a teacher? Student teachers’ perceptions of the teaching profession and motives for career choice by Ulrika Bergmark, Stefan Lundström, Lena Manderstedt & Annbritt Palo
The aim of the study is to discursively identify student teachers’ perceptions of the teaching profession early in their education and their motives for this career choice. Students wrote a letter sharing thoughts on why they want to become a teacher, how they regard the teaching profession and if someone inspired them in their career choice. The empirical data consists of 259 student texts from three Swedish teacher education programmes. The study employed a qualitative method denoting different categorizations compared to previous studies, emphasising the idea of multiple motives for career choice and the link to student teachers’ evolving pedagogical identity. Major differences can be distinguished among the programmes, emphasising different main motives and shifting incipient pedagogic identities. The results indicate the value of organising teacher education programmes drawing on multiple motives, which is expected to contribute positively to completion of teacher education and teacher retention in future profession.
3b. European Journal of Teacher Education Free Access ArticlesClick to Read
Preparing educators for the time of COVID ... and beyond by Linda Darling-Hammond & Maria E. Hyler
With the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, even greater efforts are needed to address students’ academic and social emotional needs, all the while making up for learning loss and preparing for the unpredictable combinations of distance learning, blended learning, and in-classroom learning. These expectations, along with the need for greater emphasis on equity-focused teaching and learning have raised the bar for educators and for educator preparation. This paper explores what policymakers and educators can do to support educators in meeting the social emotional and academic needs of students. These strategies include investing in high-quality educator preparation, transforming educator professional learning opportunities to match current needs, supporting mentoring and the development of new teacher roles, and creating time for educators to collaborate with each other and key partners. These actions are vital for navigating teaching and learning during the pandemic and beyond.
COVID-19 and teacher education: a literature review of online teaching and learning practices by Carmen Carrillo & Maria Assunção Flores
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted education at all levels in various ways. Institutions and teacher educators had to quickly respond to an unexpected and ‘forced’ transition from face-to-face to remote teaching. They also had to create learning environments for student teachers doing their preparation in the light of the requirements of teacher education programmes and the conditions in which both universities and schools had to operate. This paper provides a review of the literature on online teaching and learning practices in teacher education. In total, 134 empirical studies were analysed. Online teaching and learning practices related to social, cognitive and teaching presence were identified. The findings highlighted the need for a comprehensive view of the pedagogy of online education that integrates technology to support teaching and learning. The implications of this study for the development of online teaching and learning practices are discussed. Suggestions for further research are also examined.
Reconceptualising relatedness in education in ‘Distanced’ Times by Clíona Murray, Manuela Heinz, Ian Munday, Elaine Keane, Niamh Flynn, Cornelia Connolly, Tony Hall & Gerry MacRuair
As schools and universities worldwide tentatively move beyond an initial emergency response to the Covid-19 pandemic, the prospect of socially-distanced learning spaces prompts us to ask how we can maintain good educational relationships. Supporting students in a time of far-reaching changes means acknowledging that certain normalised practices, and the conceptual frameworks embedded within them, have come under significant duress. Resisting the urge to rush to quick solutions and seeing our common vulnerability and uncertainty as an opportunity for growth, we, a multi-disciplinary teacher education faculty, chose to pause and use this moment of recalibration to develop a new set of orienting priorities for teacher educators. We reflect on dynamics of care, control and power inherent in educational relationships and demonstrate how relatedness in education expands beyond the human and the local towards fostering a common sense of global and ecological responsibility.
Implications for European Physical Education Teacher Education during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-institutional SWOT analysis by Wesley O’Brien, Manolis Adamakis, Niamh O’ Brien, Marcos Onofre, João Martins, Aspasia Dania, Kyriaki Makopoulou, Frank Herold, Kwok Ng & João Costa
The present study, using a sample of Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) representatives from five Higher Education European institutions (England, Finland, Greece, Ireland, and Portugal) sought to investigate the proposed measures of change required for programme delivery during the academic year of 2020–21. Each team completed a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) examination through inductive cross-analysis, using a deductive structure, following the dimensions of: PETE Programme; PETE Staff; PETE Students. The findings presented at a case level show how each PETE programme is seeking to manage an important tension between the experiential nature of Physical Education (PE) as a subject, in light of the institutional and external constraints towards online and blended approaches. Having identified the thematic variables for PETE at an overall programme, staff and student level, the SWOT analysis heightened PETE pedagogue understanding of the subject beyond ‘physical’ contact spaces, for meaningful third-level teacher education delivery.
Faculty readiness for online crisis teaching: transitioning to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic by Ramona Maile Cutri, Juanjo Mena & Erin Feinauer Whiting
This mixed-methods study was designed to measure and elaborate constructs of faculty online readiness from pre- COVID-19 pandemic literature. Bringing together the validation of a scale to measure these constructs and insights from a focus group, findings suggest that the negative connotations of risk-taking and making mistakes while learning to teach online seem to have been mitigated by a combination of affective factors such as humility, empathy, and even optimism. Teacher educators explained that transitioning online in a context of a crisis contorts normal longitudinal perceptions of preparation and readiness. This new sense of temporality was connected to unexpected benefits of bringing them into partnership with their students. However, quantitative and qualitative results are interpreted to show that assessing students’ equitable access to online learning and managing the demands of scholarship and university-based and academic community service duties are areas in need of attention from professional development designers and policy makers.
The Covid-19 pandemic and its effects on teacher education in England: how teacher educators moved practicum learning online by Warren Kidd & Jean Murray
The shutdown of universities and schools in England, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, came just as many pre-service students began their final practicum. This research focuses on the challenges this posed for teacher educators. Using qualitative research methods and concepts from spatial geography, the article explores how pedagogies adapted as the removal of the practicum relocated learning communities to new online spaces. Established practices changed quickly, with educators showing ‘pedagogic agility’. Despite the relocation to newly-formed online spaces, many principles and ‘intentionalities’ of practice remained unchanged, as did the teacher educators’ orientating values. Overall, there was a sense of both sameness and difference in some of the innovative pedagogies developed on the (g)local level. This research has international relevance in considering the spaces in which authentic teacher education can occur and the alternative pedagogies and technologies to support professional learning in the case of a ‘missing’ practicum.
‘Come to a screeching halt’: Can change in teacher education during the COVID-19 pandemic be seen as innovation? by Viv Ellis, Sarah Steadman & Qiming Mao
Based on interviews with a global sample of ITE leaders, this paper explores whether the changes forced on institutions and individuals as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic can be classed as innovation. The paper goes beyond collating the various practical and organisational changes the ITE leaders made and instead focuses on the kind of changes enacted around the world and whether and how these changes can be seen as adding new value to historical ITE practices. Given the consistency of responses evident across the sample of teacher education leaders around the world, the paper concludes with a discussion of potentially global implications of the shifts in ITE practices reported and suggests that COVID-19 has indeed stimulated an innovative stance often perceived to be lacking in the sector.
Rethinking teacher education in a VUCA world: student teachers’ social-emotional competencies during the Covid-19 crisis by Linor L. Hadar, Oren Ergas, Bracha Alpert & Tamar Ariav
Policy documents from OECD and UNESCO have been stressing the need to prepare students for what has been termed a VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguous) world. They emphasise social-emotional competencies as necessary for coping with such conditions. This qualitative research frames the COVID-19 outbreak as an extreme case of VUCA that grants the opportunity to examine whether our teacher preparation curriculum provides teacher students with these social-emotional competencies that they are expected to model and are necessary for coping with such circumstances. Fifty-four student teachers and 24 teacher educators responded to open-ended questionnaires, and 16 semi-structured interviews with teacher educators were analysed based on grounded theory. Results demonstrate that our student teachers struggle substantially with VUCA circumstances and do not seem to receive sufficient preparation in the domain of social-emotional competencies. These troubling findings serve as a wake-up call to increase a social-emotional orientation in teacher education curriculum.
Online teaching placement during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile: challenges and opportunities by Paulina Sepulveda-Escobar & Astrid Morrison
The 2019 Coronavirus pandemic has triggered significant changes in education systems worldwide and Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes have been particularly affected by the associated challenges. Due to school closures, teaching placements have had to shift from the face-to-face lessons to an entirely virtual model. Twenty-seven Chilean English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher candidates participated in this interpretative case study aiming at exploring the challenges and opportunities of this virtual teaching experience. The results indicate that factors such as the lack of direct interaction with learners and the sudden change of setting were among those that most strongly affected the participants’ own learning process. Despite the challenges presented, student teachers suggested that this unique experience would contribute positively, at least to a certain extent, to their teacher education and their future careers. Based on the findings of this study, a series of recommendations for ITE programmes are provided.
Teachers’ online teaching expectations and experiences during the Covid19-pandemic in the Netherlands by Irene van der Spoel, Omid Noroozi, Ellen Schuurink & Stan van Ginkel
The COVID19-Pandemic has forced educators to transform their lessons into online versions in a short period of time. This study compares teachers’ perception regarding their online teaching expectations (prior to the transition to remote teaching) and experiences (after a month of online teaching). Two surveys were completed by 200 Dutch teachers. Results demonstrated a significant change in the perception of teachers regarding their resolutions to implement technology in their lessons in a post-corona era. In this regard, teachers’ gender and prior experiences with the use of ICT seem to play a small role. Findings of this study provide implications for the professionalisation of teachers, such as characteristics of teachers and intentions to implement technology in teaching, as well as experienced positive and negative aspects of online teaching. Future research should focus on constructing and testing educational design principles for effective professionalisation of teachers in adopting technology in their educational practices.
Novice teachers in a changing reality by Nurit Dvir & Orna Schatz-Oppenheimer
The aims of this paper are to explore novice teachers’ experiences in the Covid-19 crisis, and to examine their professional identity construction process. During the global crisis, novice teachers had to deal with unexpected challenges and take advantage of new opportunities. This study is based on 32 narratives of novice teachers in Israel who took part in a one semester online Zoom induction in two workshops. The open conversations narratives in the meetings were recorded and transcribed, and then subjected to categorical content analysis. The findings show the challenges and opportunities related to three central categories: technological, pedagogical and educational system in the novice teachers’ experiences. The main contributions of this study are: understanding the novice teachers’ experiences in the uncertainty and turmoil of the crisis, and learning about professional dilemmas and tensions which gave rise to various challenges and opportunities that that supported the construction their professional identity.
4a. Asia-Pasific Journal of Teacher Education Open Access ArticlesClick to Read
Teacher educators’ professional learning: perceptions of Dutch and Chinese teacher educators by Cui Ping, Gonny Schellings, Douwe Beijaard & Juyan Ye
This survey study explores how teacher educators perceive relevant aspects of professional learning in their practice. These aspects were considered as important by teacher educators in a previous review study. A total of 583 Dutch and Chinese teacher educators completed a digital questionnaire regarding the content of teacher educators’ learning, their learning activities, and reasons for learning. Most teacher educators perceived all professional learning aspects as relevant for their practice. The professional learning scales showed correlations with several background variables, such as educational degree and how teacher educators perceive their identity in the teacher education institutes. When comparing Dutch and Chinese teacher educators, significant differences were only found in their perceptions of research-related scales and the scale “getting input from others”. It can be concluded that all aspects are essential for learning and functioning. The differences between Dutch and Chinese teacher educators were related to the contexts in which they work.
Being the adult you needed as a kid: why the AITSL standards are not the best fit for drama teachers by Christina Gray & Kirsten Lambert
The Australian Professional Standards for teachers attempts to regulate the profession and improve teacher quality. Yet the standardisation of teachers’ work has attracted criticism from researchers who assert that a “one size fits all” model for judging teacher quality fails to recognise the affective, enactive and relational aspects of teaching. Given the interactive and interpersonal nature of teaching drama, this concern has salience. Our research into the experiences of early-career drama teachers reveals the positive influence these teachers have on their students and in their schools. Of particular note, are the strong role models they have become through the development of authentic, professional relationships where students feel supported and empowered to explore their feelings, achieve academically and flourish as human beings. These relationships are co-constructed during extra-curricular activities, namely in production rehearsals, where together they work towards common goals. Our findings suggest a case can be made for re-evaluating the process of judging teachers against a standardised set of criteria that neglects to capture the nuances of drama education and the passion, commitment and relationality of early-career drama teachers.
Let’s talk about teacher education! Analysing the media debates in 2016-2017 on teacher education using Sweden as a case by Silvia Edling & Johan Liljestrand
The purpose of the paper is to contribute to research on the media’s role in naming and framing the debate about teacher education using Sweden as a case study. This is done by analysing how articles published in four major Swedish newspapers from 2016–2017 define: a) the challenges/strengths of current teacher education and b) the kind of teacher professionalism that the descriptions give rise to. Using content analysis, the study shows that the media mainly emphasises the negative aspects of teacher education and, in particular, scepticism of the scientific basis where postmodernism is regarded as problematic and needing to be replaced by cognitive science due to the insufficient knowledge of teachers and student teachers, the shortage of teachers in the country as a whole and disciplinary problems in the classroom. The debate is primarily fuelled by those outside the field of educational research, who argue that psychology and neuroscience scholars should have the power to define the content of education, which indicates a view of professionalism as inside-out-professionalism. There are more nuanced approaches to teacher education as well, but these are marginalised.
Do stereotypes strike twice? Giftedness and gender stereotypes in pre-service teachers’ beliefs about student characteristics in Australia by Svenja Matheis, Lena Kristina Keller, Leonie Kronborg, Manfred Schmitt & Franzis Preckel
Stereotypes influence teachers’ perception of and behaviour towards students, thus shaping students’ learning opportunities. The present study investigated how 315 Australian pre-service teachers’ stereotypes about giftedness and gender are related to their perception of students’ intellectual ability, adjustment, and social-emotional ability, using an experimental vignette approach and controlling for social desirability in pre-service teachers’ responses. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that pre-service teachers associated giftedness with higher intellectual ability, but with less adjustment compared to average-ability students. Furthermore, pre-service teachers perceived male students as less socially and emotionally competent and less adjusted than female students. Additionally, pre-service teachers seemed to perceive female average-ability students’ adjustment as most favourable compared to male average-ability students and gifted students. Findings point to discrepancies between actual characteristics of gifted female and male students and stereotypes in teachers’ beliefs. Consequences of stereotyping and implications for teacher education are discussed.
A global human rights approach to pre-service teacher education on LGBTIs by Tiffany Jones
Pre-service teacher education on LGBTI rights and inclusion is impacted by multiple conflicting education governance provisions carrying different risks and duties for teachers. Pre-service teacher education has an international reach – catering to both international pre-service teachers and domestic pre-service teachers destined for careers and travel abroad. This paper argues that pre-service teacher education efforts focussing solely on local education treatments of LGBTI rights may leave pre-service teachers sorely underprepared for the differing education contexts they may encounter. The article proposes that teacher educators should communicate relevant international human rights legislation provisions and education policies on LGBTIs. It provides overviews of LGBTI identities, laws and policies, and data across multiple contexts based on key informant interview data and desk-based research. It argues that some sources on LGBTIs are unreliable and informed by broader disruptive geopolitical efforts, and suggests why and how to train pre-service teachers to avoid them.
“They made me feel like a teacher rather than a praccie”: sinking or swimming in pre-service drama education by Christina Gray, Peter Wright & Robin Pascoe
Support, professional guidance and modelling of teaching practice offered by quality mentor teachers are important components in preparing teachers for the profession. Yet research confirms the impact of poor mentoring on pre-service teachers’ developing pedagogy. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study with pre-service drama teachers and their mentors as a way of better understanding how mentoring impacts their developing pedagogy, in a learning area that is highly interactive and relational. Data comprised of observations of planning and teaching, participant interviews, journals and field notes representing five pre-service drama teachers’ experience of mentors during an extended teaching practicum. These data revealed the considerable variance and disparities in mentoring styles and quality and the repercussions for the pre-service drama teachers. The discussion addresses the implications of these findings in light of those mentor attributes identified as most conducive to creating competent and confident beginning drama teachers.
Contexts and concepts: analysing learning tasks in a foundation phase teacher education programme in South Africa by Iben Christiansen, Carol Bertram & Tabitha Mukeredzi
Within teacher education, there is ongoing debate about the nature and extent of the propositional and conceptual knowledge that teachers need. In this paper we interrogate the learning tasks detailed in six learning modules offered in a formal qualification for South African Foundation Phase (grade R-3) teachers. Our purpose is to analyse to what extent the in-text informal learning tasks foreground the conceptual object of study or the practice-based context, and thus the extent to which these tasks require teachers to develop systematic conceptual knowledge which is clearly related to practice. Tasks which make visible both the conceptual object of study and the practice-based context are most likely to enable teachers to systematise ideas, and thus build professional judgement. Our findings show that there are differences between the six modules, but that generally the conceptual object of study is not made strongly visible in the learning tasks, except in the mathematics education modules. We argue that this will have implications for the development of the student teachers’ systematised knowledge and professional judgement.
4b. Asia-Pasific Journal of Teacher Education Free Access ArticlesClick to Read
Articles listed below are available at ``
The potential of online technologies in meeting PLD needs of rural teachers by Frances Quinn, Jennifer Charteris, Rachael Adlington, Nadya Rizk, Peter Fletcher & Mitchell Parkes
In this paper we review the professional learning and development (PLD) needs of teachers in rural and remote schools, focusing on the Australian context. We argue that online PLD is an emerging alternative to face-to-face arrangements for the continuing education of teachers, which can connect to rural contexts through attending to considerations of relevance, collaboration, and future focus. We describe challenges to the uptake of online PLD initiatives and exemplify online PLD approaches with potential in rural schools. There is support for the utility of online PLD comprising blended approaches, online coaching and mentoring, co-design by teachers, rich discussions and interactions, and longer-term online relationship building to support the needs of rural teachers.
Universities and teacher professional learning in the new policy context of teacher accreditation by Wendy Nielsen, Kylie Lipscombe, Sharon Tindall-Ford, Sue Duchesne, Noelene Weatherby-Fell & Lynn Sheridan
All teachers in Australia must now achieve and maintain certification through mandatory accreditation processes that include specified professional learning hours. While key policies that outline teacher professional learning in Australia and New South Wales make no specific reference to a role for universities, this discussion paper proposes that the new teacher accreditation landscape provides opportunities for universities to work collaboratively with education systems to co-design and deliver contextually relevant teacher professional learning, support teachers-as-researchers and support schools to become learning communities. This collaboration would advance the policy agenda inherent in the accreditation processes by developing the intended culture of professional learning among teachers, education systems and universities that goes beyond mandated professional learning hours. We review the Australian policy context from a systems-thinking perspective and argue that university Schools and Faculties of Education (called SOE throughout this paper) work across multiple levels in education systems and are thus uniquely positioned to co-design and deliver relevant and contextually significant learning opportunities that foster teacher professional learning and school improvement.
5. Cambridge Journal of Education Open Access Articles
Articles listed below are available for open access at
Is race still relevant? Student perceptions and experiences of racism in higher education by Billy Wong, Reham Elmorally, Meggie Copsey-Blake, Ellie Highwood & Joy Singarayer
This paper explores the current views and experiences of university students towards issues of race and racism in England. A decade into the UK’s Equality Act (2010), we have witnessed a proliferation of support for minority rights and movements, especially from the younger generation, often praised as progressive and liberal. Yet, in UK higher education, there is growing evidence and concern about racial and ethnic inequalities in the experiences and outcomes of minority ethnic students. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 42 undergraduates in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) degrees, the authors explore the nuances in racial perspectives as they highlight three contemporary student discourses of racism: the naïve; the bystander; and the victim. Implications for policy and practice are suggested.
Between good intentions and practical constraints: Swedish teachers’ perceptions of school lunch by L. Berggren, C. Olsson, M. Rönnlund & M. Waling
In Sweden, pupils eat tax-funded school lunches, often in the company of teachers. This article focuses on Swedish compulsory school grade (ages 7–15) teachers’ (n = 823) perceptions of the school lunch in terms of intentions and daily practice. Analysis was based on written answers for an open-ended question that was part of a questionnaire focusing on teachers’ attitudes towards school lunch as a pedagogical activity. It was found that participating teachers saw the potential of the school lunch, placing emphasis on the social interaction that takes place in the school restaurant and the possibility of meeting pupils in a more informal setting. However, a key outcome was teachers’ depictions of the struggle between ideals and reality with the effect that teachers were not always provided with favourable conditions for school lunch interactions. It is important to address this in order to improve meal-time practices and the experience of school lunch.
Teaching on insecure foundations? Pre-service teachers in England’s perceptions of the wider curriculum subjects in primary schools by Helen Caldwell , Emma Whewell, Paul Bracey, Rebecca Heaton, Helen Crawford & Claire Shelley
Subject marginalisation is an on-going concern across the primary education sector, particularly for the arts and humanities. This poses issues for pre-service teacher partnerships and for higher education institutions (HEIs) evaluating the role of subjects within their teacher training courses as they reform their curricula to prepare students to teach across diverse educational contexts. Through the interpretation of student voice, we disseminate a case study with primary initial teacher education (ITE) students that investigates learner perceptions of their training in under-represented foundation subjects. Emerging themes include tensions between university and school-based practices, and between curriculum models, together with the need to develop student adaptability and self-direction. The authors propose that if ITE students explore and take on the dispositions of changemakers, they will become equipped with the self-efficacy and adaptability needed to develop secure bases for teaching foundation subjects as they begin their careers.
The ability trap: reductionist theorising about academic ability and the ramifications for education policy and school-based practice by Laura Mazzoli Smith
The paper argues that there is a reductive logic inherent in conceptualisations of academic ability in some Western education research as currently configured. Effective interrogation of this concept necessitates consideration across relevant fields of research, as outlined in three areas of critique: that research on educational stratification can adopt a contradictory stance with respect to conceptualising academic ability and defer to innate cognitive ability in pupil test data while denouncing this elsewhere; that cultural reproduction theory is itself a powerful social construction with ramifications for the possibility of equal learning opportunities for all; and that a narrow focus on educational stratification reifies instrumental outcomes, devaluing some of the broader purposes of education. It is argued that these reductive tendencies have ramifications for education policy and school-based practices. A lack of focus on, and clarity about, the concept of academic ability warrants more holistic conceptualising, which draws on methodological pluralism.
The capability approach and school food education and culture in England: ‘gingerbread men ain’t gonna get me very far’ by Caroline Sarojini Hart & Abigail Page
This study examines the role of school food education and school food culture in England and their potential to support pupils’ capabilities to adopt health protecting and promoting behaviours. Drawing on Amartya Sen’s capability approach, and Susan Michie’s COM-B model, the research was conducted for the Food Education Learning Landscape project. Methods included national surveys of food teachers (N = 1503), senior school leaders and class teachers (N = 684), parents and carers (N = 573) and a mixed methods study of pupils in primary and secondary schools (N = 240). Findings indicate that adequate curriculum time, teaching facilities, budget, class size, subject status and teacher training are key factors for successful curriculum implementation. Monitoring and evaluation of school food provision and development of wider health supporting school food practices were found to be critical in supporting pupils’ health capabilities. The research insights can inform future policies and practices to support children’s potential to lead healthy, flourishing lives.
Teachers, performative techniques and professional values: how performativity becomes humanistic through interplay mechanisms by Magnus Frostenson & Hans Englund
In recent years, research has pointed to the development of ‘post-performative’ teachers and cultures within the education system. This article provides explanations for how it is possible that teachers marked by performative rationality also hold and enact seemingly humanistic professional values. The study points to three interplay mechanisms that reconstitute teachers’ understandings of the role that the techniques and values play, including a reconstruction of professional values in performative terms. Thus, the article provides an explanation for the alignment of performativity and humanism in ambiguous school contexts.
We are invited to imagine: using a literary text to encourage cross-cultural dialogue about citizenship by Zoltan Varga, Nicholas McGuinn, Amanda Naylor, Hege Emma Rimmereide & Ghazal Kazim Syed
Using William Golding’s Lord of the Flies as a stimulus, researchers from Norway, Pakistan and the United Kingdom explored the potential of a literary text to encourage intercultural dialogue. The innovative research method used was to combine Literature Circles and Google Documents to provide a platform for asynchronous online exchange between three cohorts of students in higher education. The authors’ analysis of the data suggested differences between those students who regarded the text as a living document speaking directly to their personal experiences of citizenship issues and those for whom the novel remained a historical document, removed from their lived experience. The authors contend that this research can contribute original and significant insights to the literature on teaching citizenship through literary texts such as the relationship between text choice and context, models of international collaboration at the higher education level and contrasting approaches towards citizenship and reading.
Connecting students and researchers: the secondary school student’s voice in foreign language education research by Jasmijn Bloemert, Amos Paran & Ellen Jansen
The inclusion of student voice in foreign language research often relies mainly on a perspective that includes their voice as a data source, in spite of claims that the perspectives that include students as initiators should be at the fore. In this paper, the authors address the incongruity of this situation, arguing for a revision of current views. They discuss different conceptualisations of student voice in educational research, and argue that combinations of different perspectives on student voice provide unique insights that are necessary to develop our knowledge base. They then provide a detailed account of an empirical study in which an English as a foreign language (EFL) literature teaching and learning model was validated through collaboration and co-construction with secondary school students. They demonstrate the ways in which two different perspectives were combined within the project, resulting in a dialogical process, which then lends multidimensional support to the findings.
Nurturing learning or encouraging dependency? Teacher constructions of students in lower attainment groups in English secondary schools by Anna Mazenod, Becky Francis, Louise Archer, Jeremy Hodgen, Becky Taylor, Antonina Tereshchenko & David Pepper
‘Ability’ or attainment grouping can introduce an additional label that influences teachers’ expectations of students in specific attainment groups. This paper is based on a survey of 597 teachers across 82 schools and 34 teacher interviews in 10 schools undertaken as part of a large-scale mixed-methods study in England. The paper focuses on English and mathematics teachers’ expectations of secondary school students in lower attainment groups, and explores how low-attaining students are constructed as learners who benefit from specific approaches to learning justified through discourses of nurturing and protection. The authors argue that the adoption of different pedagogical approaches for groups of low-attaining learners to nurture them may in some cases be fostering dependency on teachers and cap opportunities for more independent learning. Furthermore, more inclusive whole-school learning-culture approaches may better allow for students across the attainment range to become independent learners.
6. Research Papers in Education
Articles listed below are available online at
The transition between primary and secondary school: a thematic review emphasising social and emotional issues by Kari Spernes
The purpose of this review study was to conduct a thematic exploration of prior studies related to the transition between primary and secondary school. The aim of the paper was to discover (1) the extent of earlier research, (2) how earlier research thematises social and emotional issues, and (3) suggestions of those studies concerning how to improve schools. Searches were conducted across four international databases of peer-reviewed research to identify articles published in the last decade on the topic ‘transition between primary and secondary school’. Articles related to social and emotional issues were further selected, and thematic analysis was conducted on the selected 29 articles to identify the topical focus. This review study draws attention to the importance of understanding challenges related to the transition between primary and secondary school. Overall, the analysed studies indicate that this is an important focus for educational research. Key issues related to support and wellbeing/bullying have emerged, which clarify the importance of further research in this field. The present study may also contribute to increasing awareness among policy makers and school leaders of the challenges related to the transition between primary and secondary school.
Is inclusive education really for everyone? Family stories of children and young people labelled with ‘severe and multiple’ or ‘profound’ ‘disabilities’ by Kathy Cologon
Article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, along with General Comment 4, explicitly outlines the right of every person to an inclusive education at every level. And yet, even amongst supporters of inclusive education, it is not uncommon for some students to be considered ‘too disabled’ to be included. In this research I draw on the views and lived experiences of 10 parents, living in Australia, who identify their children as having been labelled with ‘severe and multiple’ or ‘profound’ impairments. I ask what inclusion means to these parents and their families, and whether inclusion and inclusive education is important to them. Drawing on these parent perspectives, is the notion of inclusive education for everyone realistic and desirable, or only idealistic? Should inclusion be inclusive or is it ultimately conditional? The perspectives of the research participants hold implications for the realisation of the right to inclusive education.
Trial with academic elite programmes in the comprehensive upper-secondary education in Sweden: a case study by Glen Helmstad & Marie Jedemark
Sweden has a long tradition of comprehensive upper-secondary education. This began in the early 1970s. It culminated in 1994 with all the programmes having a core curriculum that gave general eligibility to higher education. Conservative and liberal governments have introduced several neoliberal school reforms, which the subsequent social democratic government has done little or nothing to change. In 2009, the government initiated a trial with academic elite programmes. The aim of this article is to analyse how and why the elite programmes translated into and transformed local school practices as they did. The study builds on interview and questionnaire data from school principals, university teachers, upper-secondary teachers and students involved in the programmes that started in 2010, and questionnaire and interview data from students that graduated from the programmes that started in 2009. The results show that programmes failed to recruit the target group, that relatively few students used the opportunity to specialise, and that the new programmes replaced previously developed local systems for support of the academically most able. The schools used the trial to strengthening their brand. The study confirms the need for ongoing development of the academic quality of the general upper-secondary education programmes.
Investigating Dutch teachers’ beliefs on working with linguistic metaconcepts to improve students' L1 grammatical understanding by Jimmy H.M van Rijt, Astrid Wijnands & Peter-Arno J.M Coppen
L1 grammar teaching worldwide often takes the form of traditional grammar teaching with decontextualized parsing exercises and rules of thumb. Some researchers have proposed enriching such forms of grammar teaching by relating traditional grammatical concepts to underlying metaconcepts from linguistic theory. The merits of such an approach have become apparent in recent intervention studies, but the question remains how teachers perceive such forms of grammar teaching, which is of particular importance for curriculum development. The present study investigated Dutch teachers’ beliefs in focus groups and a national survey (N = 127). It is found that Dutch language teachers see important benefits of a metaconceptual approach to grammar teaching, particularly as a means to improve students’ grammatical understanding. However, results also indicate that while teachers may see clear pedagogical and conceptual advantages of working based on underlying metaconcepts, their own teaching practice appears to be much more traditional. This discrepancy is explained by assuming that contextual factors have a restraining effect on what teachers can or want to do in reality. Once such contextual factors no longer play a part, teachers’ views tend to be much more geared towards a metaconceptual approach. The paper concludes with some implications for future research.
Fostering student engagement with motivating teaching: an observation study of teacher and student behaviours by Miriam Cents-Boonstra, Anna Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Eddie Denessen, Nathalie Aelterman & Leen Haerens
Given the importance of student engagement for students’ current and future success, it is essential to explore how teachers can foster student engagement within lessons. This study relied on classroom observations to describe how teachers applied Self-Determination Theory (SDT) related (de)motivating teaching behaviours to foster students’ engagement. Results from 120 observed lessons of 43 teachers indicated there were distinct relations between motivating teaching behaviours and student engagement. Most striking regarding the use of motivating teaching behaviours were the higher levels of relatedness support and guidance during activities in lessons in which students showed the highest levels of engagement. Conversely, in lessons where students were least engaged, teachers showed higher levels of chaotic teaching behaviours. Analyses of behaviours within lowly and highly engaging lessons showed that teachers in highly engaging lessons were observed to start with high levels of enthusiasm and after about ten to fifteen minutes focused on activating their students by offering room for experimenting and support while students worked on assignments. In contrast, teachers in lowly engaging lessons seemed to have a tendency to employ demotivating teaching behaviour at the start of the lesson. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Bystander behaviour in peer victimisation: moral disengagement, defender self-efficacy and student-teacher relationship quality by Björn Sjögren, Robert Thornberg, Linda Wänström & Gianluca Gini
The aim of this study was to examine how different bystander roles in peer victimisation situations relate to moral disengagement, defender self-efficacy, and student-teacher relationship quality. Self-reported survey data were collected from 333 middle and junior high school students (10–15 years of age) from four schools in Sweden. Random intercept model analyses of factor scores revealed that, when witnessing peer victimisation, students high in moral disengagement and low in defender self-efficacy were more inclined to act as reinforcers or outsiders, and that students high in defender self-efficacy and student-teacher relationship quality were more inclined to act as defenders. Furthermore, examining these relationships within and between classes revealed that reinforcer and outsider behaviours were more common among students who, compared to their classmates, were higher in moral disengagement and lower in defender self-efficacy, whereas defending was more common among students who, compared to their classmates, were higher in defender self-efficacy. The results enrich the knowledge of factors related to different bystander behaviours, which has potential implications for prevention and intervention work.
Assessing the learning of knowledge work competence in higher education – cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the Collaborative Knowledge Practices Questionnaire by Klas Karlgren, Minna Lakkala, Auli Toom, Liisa Ilomäki, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila & Hanni Muukkonen
The Collaborative Knowledge Practices Questionnaire (CKP) is an instrument designed to measure the learning of knowledge-work competence in education. The focus is on qualities of knowledge work which can be learned and taught in multiple educational settings and which may be especially important for courses with collaborative assignments. The original instrument was theoretically based on the knowledge-creation metaphor of learning. The instrument has been validated in Finnish based on student responses from a large number of higher education courses. The validation of the instrument resulted in seven scales relating to different aspects of interdisciplinary, collaborative development of knowledge-objects using digital technology. This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and adapt the original instrument into English and perform an exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) analysis in order to investigate whether the same factorial solution of the instrument also works in English in higher education courses in international settings. The original instrument was translated according to established guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The translated version has been tested in courses in medical education, online teaching and problem solving. The results provided evidence that the latent factor model found in the original instrument provided a good fit also for the adapted questionnaire.
Images of the desired teacher in practicum observation protocols by Iben Maj Christiansen, Lisa Österling & Kicki Skog
‘Good teaching’ remains disputed, but few studies have empirically studied variations in views of good teaching as reflected in teacher education. This study performed a content analysis of criteria for student teacher lesson observations stated in protocols from universities in six countries. Similarities across the protocols were the absence of images of the charismatic and the technical-professional teacher, and the dearth of teleological aspects. The degree to which protocols reflected a knowledge base, had clear implementation requirements, valued reasoned judgement, and valued transformation of content varied. On the basis of this range of images of the desired teacher, we suggest four categories of teacher images: the knowledgeable teacher, the knowledge-transforming teacher, the efficient teacher, and the constantly improving teacher, and further discuss the possibility of an inspired teacher.
Educational policies and the gender gap in test scores: a cross-country analysis by Zoltán Hermann & Marianna Kopasz
Girls tend to outperform boys in reading tests, while they usually lag behind boys in mathematics. However, the size of the gender gap varies to a great extent between countries. While the existing figliterature explains these differences as being mainly due to cultural factors, this paper explores whether this cross-country variation is related to educational policies like tracking, grade retention, and individualised teaching practices. The gender test score gap is analysed in mathematics, reading and science using the PISA 2012 dataset. Multilevel models are used in the estimation. The results suggest that the extent of the gender gap is indeed associated with certain characteristics of the various education systems. First, applying a difference-in-differences estimation method, it was found that early tracking has a direct effect on the gender gap in test scores, in favour of girls. Second, suggestive evidence shows that more student-oriented teaching practices also benefit girls relative to boys, both between and within countries, and within schools. Finally, grade retention is correlated with the gender gap, though there is further evidence suggesting that this correlation is very unlikely to represent a causal effect.
The difficulties of judging what difference the Pupil Premium has made to school intakes and outcomes in England by Stephen Gorard, Nadia Siddiqui & Beng Huat See
Pupil Premium funding has been provided to schools in England since 2011, to help overcome socio-economic segregation between schools, and reduce the poverty attainment gap. Yet there is little evidence such an approach is effective. Some important stakeholders are considering whether Pupil Premium should stop or be re-routed. It is therefore essential to know whether the policy has helped in the eight years since its inception. Evaluating the impact of such a funding policy is fraught with difficulties because of changes over time in the economy, legal definitions, prevalence of disadvantage, and metrics used. Previous research has generally ignored these, and the role of length and depth of disadvantage. Hence, previous estimates of the attainment gap are insecure. This paper introduces a new analysis, based on the National Pupil Database that considers changes in the prevalence of FSM-eligibility, private school attendance, GDP and the duration of individual poverty. Net of such factors, the results show that segregation has declined unexpectedly since 2011, suggesting that the Pupil Premium may be working. The policy should continue, while research looks at the long-term impact on the poverty gap. Meanwhile, the funding could be re-calibrated to be fairer to areas with longer-term disadvantage.
Adults’ responses to bullying: the victimized youth’s perspectives by Ylva Bjereld, Kristian Daneback & Faye Mishna
Children are generally encouraged to tell adults about bullying. Although telling can be effective in ending bullying, adults do not necessarily respond in a way that is helpful. Previous research has rarely included victims’ own thoughts and feelings regarding what adult actions and reactions are experienced as positive and helpful, and which are experienced as negative and unhelpful in managing bullying situations. This paper reports on interviews with bullied youth, with the overall aims of describing adults’ responses to bullying from the victimized youth’s perspectives and discussing how the youth experienced these responses. The analysis comprised grounded theory, emphasizing the victimized youth’s points of view. When adults became aware of bullying, they responded in three ways; verbal, physical or avoiding/ignoring. Responses that included increasing adult presence were typically experienced as helpful, as were responses whereby the youth felt adults listened without blaming the victim for the bullying or, listened without excusing the behaviour of the youth that bullied. No response was depicted by the participants as unambiguously helpful although when adults avoided or ignored the bullying it was never helpful.
Gender and cultural differences in school motivation by Hanke Korpershoek, Ronnel B. King, Dennis M. McInerney, Ramzi N. Nasser, Fraide A. Ganotice & David A. Watkins
The purpose of this research was to explore gender differences and cultural differences in school motivation among students from eight culturally diverse groups from Western and non-Western societies. The selected groups come from Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, Australia, the Netherlands, and Qatar. More than 10,000 secondary school students reported their mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic motivation. Results showed (very) small to moderately large gender differences, which were largely in line with prior research in Western societies. Moreover, significant differences in school motivation across the eight cultural groups were found, however, only the Qatari sample strongly deviated from the other samples. In all cultural groups, females had slightly higher scores on mastery motivation and social motivation (except for Qatari students), and in several Western and non-Western samples, males had slightly higher scores on performance motivation. Gender differences in extrinsic motivation were less straightforward.
Teacher-researchers’ quality concerns for practice-oriented educational research by S. E. A. Groothuijsen, L. H. Bronkhorst, G. T. Prins & W. Kuiper
Practice-oriented educational research is increasingly gaining traction in educational research due to its intention to contribute to both educational research and educational practice. Educational researchers have established quality concerns that practice-oriented educational research should meet in order to realise this intention. We argue that teachers’ quality concerns probably differ from researchers’ concerns. This may explain why practice-oriented educational research faces challenges concerning its contribution to educational practice. The aim of this study is to identify teacher-researchers’ perspectives on the quality of practice-oriented educational research and to analyse how these differ from the research perspective. In a qualitative empirical study, individual reflections, small-group discussions and semi-structured interviews of ten purposefully selected teacher-researchers are analysed following a so-called informed grounded theory approach. The results of this study show that the teacher-researchers’ quality concerns overlap with the quality concerns commonly held by researchers, but they broaden the meaning of some quality concerns, add new concerns and exclude others. Taking their common quality concerns as a starting point, close collaboration between researchers and teachers could decrease researchers’ challenges concerning legitimacy and relevance of their work and increase teachers’ use of research in educational practice.
Conflicts viewed through the micro-political lens: beginning teachers’ coping strategies for emotionally challenging situations by Henrik Lindqvist, Maria Weurlander, Annika Wernerson & Robert Thornberg
The aim of the present study was to use the narratives of beginning teachers to investigate the emotionally challenging situations they face, with a focus on how their perspectives and definitions of such situations guided their actions and made coping possible. A short term longitudinal qualitative interview study was adopted. Twenty participants were interviewed at the outset of their last year of teacher education and then followed up with an interview at their first year of teaching. In between self-reports were written in addition to the interviews. The material was analysed using constructivist grounded theory tools. The findings show that new teachers experienced conflicts that were both interpersonal (with students, parents and colleagues) and intrapersonal (being ‘good enough’; establishing boundaries related to time and engagement; suppression of emotions) as they started out in teaching. In order to cope with these challenges, the beginning teachers used various strategies including collaboration, conformity, influencing and autonomy.
The relationships between school belonging and students’ motivational, social-emotional, behavioural, and academic outcomes in secondary education: a meta-analytic review by H. Korpershoek, E. T. Canrinus, M. Fokkens-Bruinsma & H. de Boer
This meta-analytic review examines the relationships between students’ sense of school belonging and students’ motivational, social-emotional, behavioural, and academic functioning in secondary education. Moreover, it examines to what extent these relationships differ between different student groups (grade level, SES), measurement instruments, and region. The meta-analysis included 82 correlational studies, published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2018. Results revealed, on average, a small positive correlation with academic achievement, and small to moderate positive correlations with motivational outcomes such as mastery goal orientations; with social-emotional outcomes such as self-concept and self-efficacy; and with behavioural outcomes such as behavioural, cognitive, and agentic engagement. A small negative correlation is observed with absence and dropout rates. Similar results are found across different student groups (grade level, SES). Although the results vary to some extent across measurement instruments and region, generally, the results reveal that school belonging plays an important role in students’ school life.
Coolness and social vulnerability: Swedish pupils’ reflections on participant roles in school bullying by Joakim Strindberg, Paul Horton & Robert Thornberg
The aim of the study was to examine Swedish school pupils’ perspectives on why some pupils engage in bullying, support bullying or avoid standing up for the one(s) being bullied, despite a shared understanding that bullying is wrong. Through the use of focus group interviews combined with two bullying vignettes, a total of 74 pupils from grades 5 and 6 (i.e. 11–12 years of age) from two public primary schools in socioeconomically diverse areas were asked for their perspectives on various participant roles in bullying. In interpreting the vignette scenario, the participants emphasised the importance of perceived coolness, as well as the risk of being bullied. In seeking to avoid becoming a ‘victim’ of bullying, the situational roles of ‘bully’, ‘assistant’, ‘reinforcer’ and ‘outsider’ were understood as potential means for promoting, maintaining or protecting one’s own social position. The findings of the study challenge previous understandings of bullying as an act of harmful or aggressive intentionality and rather highlight the relational and situational aspects of bullying.
A conceptual-empirical typology of social science research methods pedagogy by Melanie Nind & Sarah Lewthwaite
The challenge of research methods teaching is gaining attention among policy-makers keen to build social science research capacity and, critically, among educationalists keen to enhance the pedagogy. This paper addresses pedagogy, presenting a new conceptual-empirical typology of pedagogy for social science research methods teaching. Taking a sociocultural perspective, pedagogy is seen as encompassing both actions and underlying values. A mix of qualitative methods was used to engage more than 100 methods teachers (plus students) from diverse UK and international contexts. An expert panel method and focus groups helped elucidate pedagogical knowledge. Video-stimulated reflective dialogue added detail to that knowledge. Thematic analysis was used to make sense of teaching practice with individuals and across the dataset. A typology of research methods teaching developed iteratively across this process, proposing the core categories of approach, strategy, tactics and tasks. In-depth case studies helped to gain nuance and test the emergent typology in situ. The paper argues that the typology contributes a dynamic tool for developing practice. It transforms the way we think about teaching and can be applied in any social science research method teaching context, benefitting the pedagogic community by enabling greater focus in planning and reflection.
Schools and their local religious contexts: building a framework of negotiations through qualitative meta-synthesis by Nigel Fancourt & Julia Ipgrave
In this article, we consider the relationships between schools and their local religious contexts and develop a new empirically-informed middle-level theory for analysing these relationships as a complex framework of negotiations. This framework is based on a meta-synthesis of qualitative data from forty-five case-studies of schools in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which were conducted by researchers at University of Warwick between 2009 and 2015 as part of three major projects. The synthesis design was in three stages. First, two main overarching descriptive nodes were identified, each with two sub-nodes: school – comprising school ethos and religious education; local context – comprising local patterns of belief and pupil religiosity. Second, these four sub-nodes were paired with each other to form six dyads of negotiation: four illustrated ‘direct contextualisation’, and two illustrated ‘indirect contextualisation’. The data were re-analysed through this six-fold framework. Examples of each dyad are set out, illustrating both straightforward and challenging circumstances. The value of this dyadic framework for negotiation is considered, in relation to research, policy and practice, especially in theorising contextualisation. Finally, we underline the value of qualitative meta-synthesis in theory generation.
The effect of teacher-student and student-student relationships on the societal involvement of students by Frank H. K. Wanders, Anne Bert Dijkstra, Ralf Maslowski & Ineke van der Veen
The goal of this paper was to examine the relation between teachers and students and between students on societal involvement in Dutch secondary schools. As such, we studied the role of parents on adolescents’ societal involvement and to what extent positive teacher-student and student-student relationships reduced differences in societal involvement due to parental background differences. To estimate this cross-sectional multilevel analyses, a rich combination of datasets from the Netherlands was used, encompassing 4,128 15-year-old students in 58 schools in 2010/2011. The results showed that teacher-student relations and student-student relations were positively associated with societal involvement. The level of societal involvement differed between students’ from households with lower incomes, level of education and employment, even though parenting styles seemed unrelated to societal involvement. Students from higher educated parents were found to benefit more from these positive relationships with teachers. This advantage arguably amplifies the differences in societal involvement between students with lower and higher educated parents. Future studies can give further insight into the role of classroom interrelations using additional longitudinal data or focus on more qualitative observations to explore the role of classroom interrelations and their influence on developing societal involvement.
Student access to the curriculum in an age of performativity and accountability: an examination of policy enactment by Richard Harris, Louise Courtney, Zain Ul-Abadin & Katharine Burn
The curriculum is often the target of reform and governments use a range of accountability measures to ensure compliance. This paper examines the decisions schools in England make regarding history provision, in a period of curriculum change, and the potential consequences of these decisions. Drawing on a large, longitudinal data set, of primary and secondary material, the study examines the relationship between the number of students entered for public examination in history in England and a range of situated and material factors. The data suggest that particular measures of accountability are effective in shaping school decision-making, but the type of school, socio-economic nature of the school intake, and students’ prior attainment are also important factors in understanding the decisions made. This does result in an inequitable access to history education; this inequity exists between different types of schools and socio-economic areas, and is also evident within schools where students with low prior attainment are less likely to be allowed to study history.
Effects of extending disadvantaged families’ teaching of emergent literacy by Peter Hannon, Cathy Nutbrown & Anne Morgan
Intervention to raise the literacy achievement of disadvantaged groups in society has focused on preschool literacy development because it is predictive of later educational achievement and because research has shown that key strands of literacy emerge very early in childhood. Intervention programmes to promote emergent literacy are likely to be more effective if they involve families rather than children alone but meta-analyses reveal effect sizes for family-based programmes are variable and generally lower for disadvantaged families. This article suggests reasons for limited effectiveness and reports a study of a preschool intervention programme that used a particular conceptual framework, and approach, in working with families to extend their facilitative (rather than instructional) teaching of several strands of emergent literacy. Disadvantaged families with three-year-olds were invited to join a long-duration, low-intensity programme before school entry. Home visiting was a core component of the programme, alongside community based and centre-based activities, supplemented by other means of communication. A randomised controlled trial, involving 176 families, was used to investigate effects on children’s literacy at the end of the programme and two years later. The intervention was found to be effective; effects persisted at follow up for children of mothers with low educational levels. Practice, policy and future research implications are discussed.
“A freak that no one can love”: difficult knowledge in testimonials on school bullying by Michael Tholander, Anna Lindberg & Daniel Svensson
This study adopts a testimonial approach to bullying victimisation, and aims to create a deeper understanding of the experiences and effects of being a bullying target. Four written narratives about being subjected to school bullying were analysed according to interpretative phenomenological analysis. From the analysis, four themes were constructed, which represented different elements of victimhood: (1) Self-blame in which victims view themselves as the cause of the bullying, (2) Abandonment in which victims describe feelings of standing alone in their exposed situation, (3) Turning points in which the victims recount a variety of restorative events, and (4) Continued victimhood in which the victims relate how the feeling of victimhood and vulnerability continues even though the bullying has ended. In conclusion, school bullying is something that continues to affect the individual adversely long after it has stopped, although stable friendship relations might have a mitigating influence. Through such relations, victimhood can be neutralised and a more positive self-image develop. Moreover, as numerous other kinds of victims emphasise, an essential part of the rehabilitation process is to finally be able to tell one’s story, to lay bare one’s difficult knowledge to a wider audience.
Why don’t we have enough teachers?: A reconsideration of the available evidence by Beng Huat See & Stephen Gorard
There is widespread concern about the shortage of secondary school teachers in England. Recruitment to initial teacher training regularly fails to meet its intake targets. The secondary school pupil population is increasing. Teacher vacancies have risen, and more teachers are reportedly leaving the profession prematurely. Despite considerable investment in a wide range of initiatives, costing millions of pounds, the government has acknowledged that it has been unable improve the situation substantially.
This paper presents time-series analyses of official data and documentary analyses of government publications. These suggest that teacher shortages are partly created by government policies themselves - including flaws in the selection system, and school funding system, the official extension of the education and training leaving age, and increases in the number of small schools. It is difficult when planning for teacher supply to anticipate the impact of such varied policy changes years ahead. Consequently, estimations of the numbers needed to be trained are hardly ever accurate.
This paper suggests a reconsideration of the current selection processes for initial teacher training, independent review of the Teacher Supply Model, and a long-term approach to teacher supply planning, considering other policy changes in a more coordinated way.
What counts as success? Constructions of achievement in prestigious higher education programmes by Anne-Sofie Nyström, Carolyn Jackson & Minna Salminen Karlsson
Academic achievement is regarded an indicator of the success of individuals, schools, universities and countries. ‘Success’ is typically measured using performance indicators such as test results, completion rates and other objective measures. By contrast, in this article we explore students’ subjective understandings and constructions of success, and discourses about ‘successful’ students in higher education contexts that are renowned for being demanding and pressured. We draw on data from 87 semi-structured interviews with students and staff on law, medicine and engineering physics programmes in a prestigious university in Sweden. We focus particularly upon academic expectations, effort levels, and programme structures and cultures. Achieving top grades while undertaking a range of extracurricular activities was valorised in all contexts. Top grades were especially impressive if they were attained without much effort (especially in engineering physics) or stress (especially in law and medicine); we introduce a new concept of ‘stress-less achievement’ in relation to the latter. Furthermore, being sociable as well as a high academic achiever signified living a ‘good life’ and, in law and medicine, professional competence. We discuss the implications of the dominant constructions of success, concluding that (upper) middle-class men are most likely to be read as ‘successful students’, especially in engineering physics.
The role of individual differences in the development and transfer of writing strategies between foreign and first language classrooms by Karen Forbes
While the importance of considering the wide variation among language learners has been brought to the forefront in recent years, the impact of such individual differences on the process of second or foreign language writing has been largely neglected. This paper aims to explore the ways in which individual students develop and transfer strategies within and between foreign language (FL) and first language (L1) writing. A two-phase intervention of strategy-based instruction was conducted primarily in the FL German classroom, and later also in the L1 English classroom of a Year 9 (age 13–14) class in a secondary school in England. This paper draws on in-depth qualitative data from writing tasks and stimulated recall interviews. A range of students’ trajectories through the intervention were evaluated and four distinct writer ‘profiles’ were identified: the strategic writer, the experimenter, the struggling writer and the multilingual writer. Both the development and transfer of strategies for these students were shown to be influenced by a complex and dynamic range of factors such as the learner’s proficiency level, their level of metacognitive engagement with the task, their attitude towards writing and their strategic use of other languages in their repertoire.
Learners’ attitudes to mixed-attainment grouping: examining the views of students of high, middle and low attainment by Antonina Tereshchenko, Becky Francis, Louise Archer, Jeremy Hodgen, Anna Mazenod, Becky Taylor, David Pepper & Mary-Claire Travers
There is a substantial international literature around the impact of different types of grouping by attainment on the academic and personal outcomes of students. This literature, however, is sparse in student voices, especially in relation to mixed-attainment practices. Research has indicated that students of different attainment levels might have different experiences and views of grouping structures. This paper represents a significant contribution to this literature. Drawing on the data collected as part of a large study on student grouping and teaching in England, we analyse the attitudes of students of different attainment levels to mixed-attainment practice, focusing on their explanations for their preferences or aversion to mixed-attainment classes. The data-set is drawn from group discussions and individual interviews with 89 students age 11/12 (Year 7) from eight secondary schools practicing mixed-attainment grouping in mathematics and English. Our analysis identifies some broad patterns in student attitudes, including a strong preference for mixed attainment among those at lower prior attainment. The analysis of the explanations students give for their opinions on mixed-attainment practice demonstrates how the learner identities of different groups of students are constituted in various ways by the discourses around ‘ability’, and constrained by the dominant ideology of ‘ability’ hierarchy.
7a. Journal of Education for TeachingClick to read
A measure of classroom management: validation of a pre-service teacher self-efficacy scale by Eileen V. Slater & Susan Main
Classroom management skills are essential for effective teaching and consequently form an integral part of undergraduate teaching degrees. Self-efficacy in classroom management influences an individual’s willingness to undertake specific actions and their perseverance in the face of difficulties in executing these actions. In order to track the progress of pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy in classroom management, an easy to administer Classroom Management Self Efficacy Instrument (CMSEI) was developed and piloted with a third year cohort of pre-service teachers. This article reports on the psychometric properties of the CMSEI as determined through a Rasch analysis. The analysis supports the Classroom Management Self Efficacy Instrument (CMSEI) as an accurate and internally consistent, unidimensional scale for use with undergraduate pre-service teachers.
On the complexities of educating student teachers: teacher educators’ views on contemporary challenges to their profession by Birgitte Malm
Recent research emphasises significant interconnections between teacher educators’ normative beliefs, their relations with student teachers and their teaching methods. In an attempt to better understand how teacher educators perceive of their work task, interviews were conducted with twelve Early Childhood teacher educators at a Swedish University. Four dimensions are in focus: (1) What in your work situation are you most satisfied with? (2) Describe your approach to students. (3) Describe any personal or professional dilemmas you may have experienced. (4) How do you think we can best maintain quality in teacher education? Results of the study show that teacher educators’ professional development is largely determined by intrinsic motivation. Positive aspects relate to feelings of self-esteem, nurturing meaningful relationships, and caring for students; negative aspects relate to concerns about a heavy workload, professional ambiguity and a lack of time for scholarly pursuits. Developing a professional identity involves a conscious choice of pedagogical methods (teaching), self-cultivation and sharing of knowledge through research (scholarship), and administrative responsibilities (service). The complexities and challenges involved in being a teacher educator are many. Understanding how teacher educators’ normative beliefs influence their work and relationships is an essential component for future research on teacher education professionalism.
Strategies to cope with emotionally challenging situations in teacher education by Henrik Lindqvist
Learning to teach is an emotional endeavour and student teachers challenging emotions are recurrently created in teacher education. The aim of this study was to investigate student teachers’ coping with emotionally challenging situations in teacher education. In the study, 22 student teachers studying their last year of teacher education participated through semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methodology. The findings revealed that coping with emotionally challenging situations was connected to student teachers’ main concern of the discrepancies between idealistic conceptions and experiences. This included wanting to have an extensive impact on future pupils as a student teacher and experiencing the ambition as potentially exhausting. In coping with this discrepancy, three strategies were used: change advocacy, collective sharing and responsibility reduction. The coping strategies are discussed in the light of existing literature and potential implications are addressed.
School Adoption by School-University Partnerships – an example from Germany by Andreas Bach
The partnership model ‘School Adoption’ was developed in Norway as a part of teacher education and in the meantime, is being implemented in several European countries as an internship concept. The core element is the so-called ‘adoption week’, during which student teachers teach all the lessons at a school, while the teachers attend a professional development course. University teacher educators work intensively together with student teachers and teachers. The student teachers who participate in the School Adoption experience their future professional field under increasingly real conditions and also in its entire complexity. How the complex internship is processed cognitively by student teachers, has not yet been examined. This study at the German University of Flensburg, is designed to evaluate student teachers’ concerns and stress experiences, and determine which factors are relevant for being able to deal with the high level of complexity. Content analyses show that student teachers’ biggest concerns are classroom management and recognition as a teacher, as well as an increase in the workload. The findings also indicate that internship settings with a high level of complexity, can be perceived as a positive challenge in the context of sufficiently structured preparation and support.
7b. Journal of Education for Teaching Free Access Articles
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COVID-19 and its effects on teacher education in Ontario: a complex adaptive systems perspective by Shirley Van Nuland, David Mandzuk, Krista Tucker Petrick & Terri Cooper
Teacher education in Ontario, Canada has had to respond to a myriad of challenges presented by the COVID-19 crisis, particularly after government authorities decided to close schools until students and faculty could return safely. In this paper, we examine some of the major challenges that are being faced by teacher educators as they prepare for September 2020, struggling to re-imagine teaching and learning remotely. We also examine the issues facing teacher education using the lens of ‘complex adaptive systems’, systems that are unpredictable, have many interacting parts, and are characterised by constant uncertainty both from within and particularly from outside. Some issues affecting teacher education and teacher educators causing this uncertainty in Ontario include 1) access to effective online connection and support, 2) educator professional development for online learning, 3) conversion of face-to-face courses to successful online courses, and 4) the recognition of student teachers’ practica experiences. Although this article provides a snapshot of the Ontario context and the challenges it currently faces in teacher education, it also presents some solutions, and by thinking of the context as an example of a complex adaptive system, it also holds out hope for the future.
Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in Trinidad and Tobago: challenges and opportunities for teacher education by Rowena Constance Kalloo, Beular Mitchell & Vimala Judy Kamalodeen
Trinidad and Tobago responded decisively to the COVID 19 pandemic and was successful in containing community spread of the virus. By mid-march 2020, there was closure of key business and educational institutions. To minimise the loss of learning time, emergency remote learning became the modus-operandi, a response which challenged the most socially vulnerable students. At the University of the West Indies (UWI) the 500 participants enrolled in the Early Childhood, and Primary education programmes, and the in-service post-graduate diploma in Secondary education were struggling to adjust to online teaching, the existential anxiety of coping with a dangerous disease, and programme completion. The UWI instituted a COVID-19 policy that facilitated a structured response to programme completion and assessment across all faculties.The paper analysed the decisions taken by the UWI School of Education that supported its teachers through the practicum and pedagogy courses. Using a qualitative case study methodology, data were collected through observations, documents, and informal discussions with faculty. Thematic analyses allowed the emergence of three key constructs that facilitated effective learning during the crisis period : Community as an empathetic connection to stakeholders, Creativity as the ability for agile and imaginative responses, and Connectivity through technological readiness.
Global impact of COVID-19 on education systems: the emergency remote teaching at Sultan Qaboos University by Mohamed ElTahir Osman
In response to the lockdown of Sultan Qaboos University and closure of all schools in Oman, the college of education activated an E-learning ‘Emergency Remote Teaching’ Plan for the Spring semester, and the student teacher practicum programme. The primary purpose of the intended paper is to highlight the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the Sultanate of Oman in general, and the education system in particular. The paper will also provide an analytic description of the college experience and lessons learnt from the impact of the pandemic on the changing teaching and learning landscape, and the diffusion and adoption of e-learning in teacher education.
From Bricks and Mortar to Remote Teaching: A Teacher Education Program‘s Response to COVID-19 by Reyes Limon Quezada, Christie Talbot & Kristina Belen Quezada-Parker
The spread of COVID-19 pandemic swept the globe with incendiary events that transformed not only economies and health, but also education at all levels, in all nations, and to all people. The effects on primary, secondary, and higher education were swift, leaving higher education institutions to fend for themselves. In the United States, the delivery of knowledge in a traditional classroom setting changed to exclusively online teaching overnight. This article presents how one California liberal arts college and its graduate teacher education programme prepared its faculty for this significant transition for a different educational setting and teaching methodologies in response to COVID-19. Faculty were resilient to the changes in teaching delivery models of remote/online education that were imminent. The data yielded five themes: Technology-Based Instructional Strategies; Technology-Based Support Office Consultation; Alternative Technology-Based Course Assessments; Feedback for Learning and Teaching Improvement; and Social-Emotional Engagement in Courses, and Support of Clinical Placement that were found to be essential to transitioning to remote/online teaching.
Argentina and the COVID-19: Lessons learned from education and technical colleges in Buenos Aires Province by Mariana Coolican, Juan Carlos Borras & Michael Strong
This study looks at the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on four education and technical colleges from the San Nicolas District in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. We analyse information collected from directors, a regional teacher trainer, and an education specialist on how colleges react, adapt, and respond to student-teacher needs during the tine of the pandemic. We also examine the changes to the practicum for 21 teachers. The reality of the pandemic has inspired management and teachers from training and technical institutions to propose an innovative educational response for the student-teachers and to contemplate how teacher training can reshape practice and learning moving from the old to the new normal.
Innovations in teacher education at the time of COVID19: an Australian perspective by Janet Scull, Michael Phillips, Umesh Sharma & Kathryn Garnier
The university sector was hit hard by COVID-19 in early 2020 with global calls for universities to lockdown. The teacher education sector in most countries, including Australia, had not anticipated the shift to off-campus teaching of such a massive scale and the sector was not well prepared for the challenge. This paper reports how the Australian education sector responded to the COVID-19 pandemic and details how one Australian university implemented a number of innovations changing the mode of teaching and move to a fully online environment for all initial teacher education programmes. The innovations included the conversion of all face to face course work units into online units, including synchronous and asynchronous learning opportunities. The initial impact of the innovations on pre-service teachers was captured through systematic measures of engagement with the online content. Using these measures, we interviewed four academics who were identified as supporting high levels of interaction. We were keen to understand what contributed to fostering high levels of interaction of pre-service teachers. Key lessons learnt from the analysis are discussed with a hope that these practices might benefit others looking for ways to provide high-quality teacher education programmes during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
Teacher education in times of COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal: national, institutional and pedagogical responses by Maria Assunção Flores & Marília Gago
This paper focuses on the national, institutional and pedagogical responses as a result of the closure of schools and universities in March 2020 in Portugal. It includes a brief description and analysis of the initiatives and responses to the crisis as well as the difficulties, the challenges and the opportunities. The paper concludes with the discussion of the implications for teaching and teacher education in such uncertain times, particularly in regard to the role of practice as well as issues of mentoring within the context of a practicum as a ‘real practice’ versus ‘an ideal(ised) practice’.
Learning to teach without school-based experience: conundrums and possibilities in a South African context by Maureen Robinson & Lee Rusznyak
Covid-19 and the resultant national lockdown saw thousands of initial teacher education students in South Africa moving at short notice to online learning. For teacher educators this represented significant technical and pedagogical challenges, as they faced the task of adapting their teaching to an online modality, while simultaneously maintaining the academic integrity of their modules. Schools too were closed, creating the possible scenario that new teachers might graduate with little or no practical exposure to the classroom. A previously unheard-of question emerged, namely whether a period of immersion in schools was a non-negotiable in learning to be a teacher. Put otherwise - would it be possible to prepare good teachers while schools were closed for large parts of the year? The article outlines some debates relating to teacher education that emerged in South Africa during this time, linking these to the concepts of situational learning, relational learning and pedagogical reasoning. Questions are then posed as to the potential longer-term implications of this period for teacher education pedagogy in South Africa.
Lessons from an online teacher preparation Program: flexing work experience to meet student needs and regulators’ requirements in the United States by Richard Barnes, Robert Hall, Verna Lowe, Carrie Pottinger & Aaron Popham
In the United States, educator preparation is regulated at the state level. Accordingly, each state education system, and even individual districts, responded uniquely to the COVID-19 pandemic. Western Governors University (WGU) compiled a list of each state regulators’ response to COVID, many of which included relaxation of student teaching requirements. While most of WGU’s teacher preparation programme is delivered online, students complete observations and student teaching (teaching practice) in traditional classrooms. WGU had 1,875 student teacher candidates in the field on 1 March 2020. Through diligent effort all the candidates were able to complete their student teaching. WGU responded by allowing parallelism between the student teachers and their mentor teacher so that the student teacher could engage in teaching in the same manner as their mentor teacher, which varied on a district-by-district and state-by-state basis. WGU was also careful to evaluate whether the host school’s virtualisation was still meeting the needs of the student teacher and if not, then to shift the student teacher to a different placement that was more virtual-friendly. Additionally, WGU plans to pilot intentionally virtual student teaching opportunities with online charter schools in autumn 2020.
Covid- 19 and the future of practicum in teacher education in Zimbabwe: Rethinking the ‘new normal’ in quality assurance for teacher certification by Nathan Moyo
This article examines the policy and quality assurance debates in teacher education ensuing at one school of education in Zimbabwe following the sudden closure of schools and universities due to the Covid 19 pandemic. Unfortunately, final year university pre-service teacher education students’ practicum assessment could not be finalised. The practicum is a critical component in teacher education as it engenders professional transformation, reflection and growth. Unlike other academic modules which could be completed via online and distance education, the practicum, being a practical undertaking in a classroom situation, presented unique challenges. The research question that the article addresses is: How would certification of teachers be finalised when this time-tested assessment had not been done?The articleemploys content and discourse analysis to unpack the philosophical and professional arguments being advanced by faculty, in order to understand how they are likely to determine future directions of teacher education. The argument is that the emerging ‘new normal’ should not compromise the quality assurance mechanisms developed overtime.
Mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic: a snapshot from Malaysia into the coping strategies for pre-service teachers’ education by Nurfaradilla Mohamad Nasri, Hazrati Husnin, Siti Nur Diyana Mahmud & Lilia Halim
As Covid-19 cases increased rapidly in Malaysia, the Movement Control Order was imposed nationwide by the government, resulting in immediate closure of schools and universities. Consequently, teaching and learning were instantaneously transformed into distance and remote formats. This article offers a snapshot into how teacher educators and student teachers, coped with the unprecedented situation. We also share our reflections and examination of the online teaching and learning experiences through the lens of TPACK and online learning models. A major implication for both teacher educators and student teachers is to acquire TPACK – technological knowledge and technological pedagogical knowledge to ensure learning continuity and equity.
Social distancing effects on the teaching systems and teacher education programmes in Brazil: reinventing without distorting teaching by Martha Maria Prata- Linhares, Thiago da Silva Gusmão Cardoso, Derson S. Lopes-Jr & Cristina Zukowsky-Tavares
Brazil is a country with marked social asymmetries, which have an impact on the impoverishment of basic educational proficiencies. We present a snapshot in a cross-sectional documentary study that registered the risk of distorting educational processes even more intensely, due to the easing of political and pedagogical decision-making. Planning and thinking about how to keep our teachers and students learning during the isolation and the post-pandemic period, implies the redesigning of education scenarios, searching for balance in teaching and in the use of technologies and resources. Until now, we have noticed an enlarged reproduction of pre-existing educational asymmetries. People who live in a situation of social vulnerability and digital exclusion are facing many more difficulties in the isolation period, as well as in managing to keep learning, than those in better financial conditions and with broadband internet access. It is a time that requires collective reinvention, bringing together policies and practices in a resolutive and equitable way.
What kind of educator does the world need today? Reimagining teacher education in post-pandemic Canada by Cher Hill, Paula Rosehart, Janice St. Helene & Sarine Sadhra
Our unique pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes at Simon Fraser University, in which experiential learning and professional mentorship are combined with academic course work, have undergone emergency modifications in order to enable our students to continue with their programmes while adhering to government restrictions due to COVID 19. As we respond to the emergent needs within university and school communities, social-emotional wellness, connection, ‘being apart together,’ engagement, and support for vulnerable students and those with exceptionalities, are currently the most important considerations. The pandemic has highlighted the need to dismantle racism and systemic inequities within our educational systems; to prioritise mental health and wellness in schools; to broaden and decolonise mainstream conceptions of teaching and learning as well as access to education; to build caring reciprocal relationships with the natural world; and to recognise teachers as researchers and community leaders. It is these issues that frame our vision of teacher education in the post-pandemic era. Inspired by the scholarship of Michelle Tanaka and Gregory Cajete, we ask ourselves and our students, what kind of educator does the world need today, and what kind of world are we going to leave for the children?
Helping teachers to respond to COVID-19 in the Eastern Caribbean: issues of readiness, equity and care by Coreen J. Leacock & S. Joel Warrican
Education in the Eastern Caribbean has been heavily influenced by the colonial history of the sub-region. In recent years though, in recognition of the fact that the traditional approaches to teaching and learning are no longer meeting the needs of present-day students, there have been calls for change to more student-friendly ones, with electronic technology playing a significant role. However, the resistance to certain types of devices in the classroom has contributed to the slow uptake of widespread use of electronic technology and the online environment as a mode for teaching and learning. The closure of schools due to the advent of COVID-19 pandemic forced education systems in the region to turn to the online environment to engage students in educational activities. Students, teachers and other education officials had to face their apprehensions and venture into this space for schooling. This paper describes actions taken by the Eastern Caribbean Joint Board of Teacher Education to help teachers cope with this different learning environment, guided by the concepts of teacher readiness, equity relating to access of resources and providing caring support for all affected.
Initial teacher education in England and the Covid-19 pandemic: challenges and opportunities by Linda la Velle, Stephen Newman, Catherine Montgomery & David Hyatt
This paper examines the impact and implications on initial teacher education (ITE) of the crisis brought about by the Covid-19 lockdown of schools and universities from the perspectives of four university providers in England. The start of the pandemic meant that, in England, schools were closed to all but vulnerable pupils and the children of ‘key workers’, and so the normal placements of students in teacher education (ITE students) could not continue. The ‘virtualisation’ of the ITE programmes by, in some cases, both schools and universities, raised significant issues of both equity and pedagogy. The loss of time on school placement had the effect of lost opportunities for practising teaching but increasing the time for reading and reflection. We consider the effects on a teacher education programme when the practicum experience is abruptly curtailed, yet the programme is able to continue in a different way. We present a model framework for a new digital pedagogy for ITE and discuss the opportunities and affordances available as the post-Covid educational landscape emerges, and suggest that the Covid-19 crisis provides an opportunity to reflect on the idea that practicum experience may be a necessary but not, in itself, a sufficient condition for teacher learning.
Adaptations to a face-to-face initial teacher education course ‘forced’ online due to the COVID-19 pandemic by Benjamin Luke Moorhouse
This report describes the adaptations made to one initial teacher education course at a Hong Kong university designed for face-to-face instruction that was required to be delivered exclusively online due to the suspension of face-to-face classes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. It describes the adaptations the tutor made, and the challenges faced adapting to the new mode of delivery. It is hoped that others can learn from the author’s experience and be prepared for the suspension of face-to-face classes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic or other health emergencies.
NOTE: Opportunities and challenges: teacher education in Israel in the Covid-19 pandemic by Smadar Donitsa-Schmidt & Rony Ramot is excluded as no abstract.
8. Computers & Education Open Access Articles
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Capturing schools' digital capacity: Psychometric analyses of the SELFIE self-reflection tool by Patrícia Costa, Jonatan Castaño-Muñoz, Panagiotis Kampylis
Results from self-reflection tools for schools' digital capacity can lead to evidence-based decisions within the school community and/or the development of an action plan for a better integration of digital technologies. Thus, it is important that the information derived from self-reflection tools is complete, accurate, and relevant. However, usually self-reflection tools do not show evidence of the quality of the information provided. In this paper, we focus on SELFIE, a new, comprehensive, and customisable self-reflection tool for schools' digital capacity, and we analyse the quality of the information that it provides. In particular, we look at discrimination and difficulty item parameters (using item response theory), we analyse the reliability (using Cronbach's alpha and Omega) and the construct validity (using confirmatory factor analysis) of its core items. We find support for the tool quality and conclude that schools using SELFIE are provided with accurate information on their digital capacity. Additionally, we discuss ideas for further improving the tool and future research work. The innovative design of the SELFIE tool and the psychometric analyses of its core items are a novelty in the field of schools' digital capacity and can provide insights for the development of self-reflection tools for school communities.
Educational scalability in MOOCs: Analysing instructional designs to find best practices by Kasch Julia, Van Rosmalen Peter & Kalz Marco
This study aims to reveal insights into the educational design of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in particular on their educational scalability: How do MOOCs provide interaction and formative feedback to high student numbers without being highly depending on the capacity of the teacher? We have applied a design analysis instrument that was specifically developed for large-scale online courses to analyse fifty MOOCs in a qualitative way. The goal of the analysis was to detect scalable best practices of formative feedback and interaction and focused on when, how and from whom students received formative feedback. To get more insight into the scalable best practices we also investigated on which complexity level they were provided. The analysis indicated scalable best practices on various complexity levels and across different learning activities. This shows that scalable formative feedback and interaction can be provided in MOOCs through different formats such quizzes, peer-feedback and simulations. The majority of the MOOCs in our sample provide student-content interaction during knowledge transfer activities (‘knows’). A selection of design examples is discussed as potentially best practices for educational scalability, not only for MOOCs but also for online education in general. While the study shows examples of scalable design choices in (open) online education, it also indicates a need for more elaborate interactions and feedback in MOOCs in order to improve their educational value and quality.
Development and experimental validation of a dataset of 360°-videos for facilitating school-based bullying prevention programs by Miguel Barreda-Ángeles, Maria Serra-Blasco, Esther Trepat, Alexandre Pereda-Baños, Montserrat Pàmias, Diego Palao, Ximena Goldberg & Narcís Cardoner
Virtual Reality (VR) is considered an effective way to boost empathy by adopting the perspective of others, thus having clear potential for improving anti-bullying programs. However, this potential benefit of VR is limited by both the lack of adequate content and the lack of empirical evidence of its effectiveness. In this article, we present the process of co-creation of a set of 360°-videos representing the experience of victims of bullying from a first-person perspective, involving secondary school students (N = 89). The impact of bullying content and VR presentation in terms of emotional response was later assessed in an experiment (N = 35) in which we collected both participants’ self-reported and psychophysiological measures of emotional state during the viewing. The results support the effectiveness of VR in producing realistic emotional responses to the acts of bullying, although differences between self-reported and psychophysiological measures were observed. Lessons learned, limitations, and implications for the use of VR for bullying prevention are discussed.
Rural teachers’ sharing of digital educational resources: From motivation to behavior by Jingxian Wang, Dineke E.H. Tigelaar & Wilfried Admiraal
Research indicates that knowledge sharing promotes teacher professional learning opportunities and development. However, it is yet to be known what motivates teachers in rural schools in sharing their knowledge as they may face more challenges than teachers in urban areas when sharing. This study examined factors explaining rural teachers' sharing behavior regarding digital educational resources, both within and outside school, as posited by combining motivation theory and the integrative model of behavior prediction. Self-reported questionnaires from 709 rural teachers were collected and analyzed employing the Structural Equation Modeling. Different motivational factors were found to be related to sharing behavior within school and outside school. More specifically, internal motivation was positively and external motivation was negatively related to sharing behavior in both contexts. Moreover, sharing intention and sharing climate significantly explained teachers' sharing behavior, but only outside school. A mediation analysis using a bias-corrected bootstrapping method revealed that the effect of internal motivation on sharing intention within school was mediated through self-efficacy and attitudes whereas the effect of external motivation on sharing intention outside school was only mediated by attitudes. These findings contribute to a better understanding of how to support teachers’ sharing behavior in different contexts.
On the predictors of computational thinking and its growth at the high-school level by Josef Guggemos
Computational thinking (CT) is a key 21st-century skill. This paper contributes to CT research by investigating CT predictors among upper secondary students in a longitudinal and natural classroom setting. The hypothesized predictors are grouped into three areas: student characteristics, home environment, and learning opportunities. CT is measured with the Computational Thinking Test (CTt), an established performance test. N = 202 high-school students, at three time points over one school year, act as the sample and latent growth curve modeling as the analysis method. CT self-concept, followed by reasoning skills and gender, show the strongest association with the level of CT. Computer literacy, followed by duration of computer use and formal learning opportunities during the school year, have the strongest association with CT growth. Variables from all three areas seem to be important for predicting either CT level or growth. An explained variance of 70.4% for CT level and 61.2% for CT growth might indicate a good trade-off between the comprehensiveness and parsimony of the conceptual framework. The findings contribute to a better understanding of CT as a construct and have implications for CT instruction, e.g., the role of computer science and motivation in CT learning.
Secondary students’ epistemic thinking and year as predictors of critical source evaluation of Internet blogs by Stephanie Pieschl & Deborah Sivyer
Students should develop competent epistemic thinking and critical source evaluation skills during secondary education. This study compared these skills and their interrelation between Australian students (n = 218) from Years 7, 9, and 11. In an online questionnaire, students critically evaluated the Trustworthiness of four fictitious Internet blog posts that varied in Reliability (reliable vs. unreliable) and Content (pro vs. contra computer games). They also completed an Epistemic Thinking Assessment, resulting in scores on Absolutism, Multiplism, and Evaluativism. Results show no significant differences between Years in Epistemic Thinking, but significant Year differences in Trustworthiness judgments: Year 9 and 11 students discriminated between reliable and unreliable blog posts while Year 7 students failed to do so. Additionally, not only being in Year 7 but also holding Multiplist beliefs (e.g., “everything is subjective”) predicted poor source evaluation skills. Potential explanations and implications for teaching practice will be discussed.
The effects of a goal-framing and need-supportive app on undergraduates' intentions, effort, and achievement in mobile science learning by Lucas M. Jeno, Ulrich Dettweiler & John-Arvid Grytnes
In this study we investigate the effect of manipulating intrinsic goals, relative to extrinsic goals, in a mobile learning tool and traditional textbook for biology students. Using Self- Determination Theory, we hypothesized that framing intrinsic goals in a need-supportive mobile learning app would enhance motivation, intentions, effort, and achievement, relative to extrinsic goals in a traditional tool (textbook). We randomized 128 undergraduate students learning to identify species in this 2 × 2 experiment. Using Bayesian analyses, results show a credible interaction effect between the mobile app and intrinsic goal-framing for intentions and identified regulation. For effort and achievement, the main effect of mobile learning is credible with substantial effect sizes. We argue that these findings are due to the need-supportive features within the mobile app and need-satisfying experience of pursuing intrinsic goals. For intrinsic motivation and amotivation, however, extrinsic goal-framing and intrinsic goal-framing, respectively, are credible and positive main effects, which is unexpected. More research is needed to investigate if this contradictory finding is replicated by others, or if students are pursuing extrinsic goals for autonomous motivation. Bayesian multigroup path analysis found across both groups that identified regulation predicted intentions, and intrinsic motivation predicted effort and achievement. For the extrinsic goal-framing group, amotivation predicted achievement, identified regulation predicted effort and achievement, and intrinsic motivation negatively predicted intentions. The results of our study provide theoretical implications for how goal-framing energizes different types of motivation within the mLearning context, and how manipulation within technology may have a differential effect on motivation than a physical agent.
Self-regulated learning support in flipped learning videos enhances learning outcomes by David C.D. van Alten, Chris Phielix, Jeroen Janssen & Liesbeth Kester
In flipped learning, students study learning material before class and apply the content of the learning material during class. This requires self-regulated learning (SRL) behavior due to the increased autonomy in this instructional approach. Providing students with video-embedded SRL support (i.e., prompts and explicit instruction) during the learning activities before class has proven to be an effective strategy in primary and higher education to enhance students' SRL and learning outcomes. The current study aims to replicate the effects of SRL support in a Flipped class in secondary education over the course of eight weeks. In total, 115 eighth-grade students from five classes participated in a quasi-experimental study, which measured the effects of SRL support on students' SRL (self-reports and online activities), learning outcomes, and satisfaction. We found a positive effect of SRL support on learning outcomes, but we could not explain this by differences in students' SRL. Although all the students were generally positive about the flipped learning environment, some students clearly disliked the SRL instruction. We conclude that SRL support is beneficial for students' learning but that it should be carefully designed to avoid students’ dissatisfaction, which could potentially nullify these beneficial effects on learning.
Robot tutor and pupils’ educational ability: Teaching the times tables by Elly A. Konijn & Johan F. Hoorn
Research shows promising results of educational robots in language and STEM tasks. In language, more research is available, occasionally in view of individual differences in pupils’ educational ability levels, and learning seems to improve with more expressive robot behaviors. In STEM, variations in robots’ behaviors have been examined with inconclusive results and never while systematically investigating how differences in educational abilities match with different robot behaviors. We applied an autonomously tutoring robot (without tablet, partly WOz) in a 2 × 2 experiment of social vs. neutral behavior in above-average vs. below-average schoolchildren (N = 86; age 8–10 years) while rehearsing the multiplication tables on a one-to-one basis. The standard school test showed that on average, pupils significantly improved their performance even after 3 occasions of 5-min exercises. Beyond-average pupils profited most from a robot tutor, whereas those below average in multiplication benefited more from a robot that showed neutral rather than more social behavior.
Effectiveness of digital-based interventions for children with mathematical learning difficulties: A meta-analysis by Silvia Benavides-Varela, Claudio Zandonella Callegher, Barbara Fagiolini, Irene Leo, Gianmarco Altoè & Daniela Lucangeli
The purpose of this work was to meta-analyze empirical evidence about the effectiveness of digital-based interventions for students with mathematical learning difficulties. Furthermore, we investigated whether the school level of the participants and the software instructional approach were decisive modulated factors. A systematic search of randomized controlled studies published between 2003 and 2019 was conducted. A total of 15 studies with 1073 participants met the study selection criterion. A random effects meta-analysis indicated that digital-based interventions generally improved mathematical performance (mean ES = 0.55), though there was a significant heterogeneity across studies. There was no evidence that videogames offer additional advantages with respect to digital-based drilling and tutoring approaches. Moreover, effect size was not moderated when interventions were delivered in primary school or in preschool.
Developing a short assessment instrument for Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK.xs) and comparing the factor structure of an integrative and a transformative model by Mirjam Schmid, Eliana Brianza & Dominik Petko
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is regarded as one of the most important models describing teachers' competencies for successfully teaching with technology. TPACK is most frequently assessed by means of self-report questionnaires, which beside their inherent methodological limitations present constraints related either to the validity, reliability, or practical applicability of existing instruments. Furthermore, the internal structure of the TPACK framework is a topic of debate. The two goals of this study were (1) to develop a valid and reliable short questionnaire for measuring TPACK (TPACK.xs), and (2) to use this instrument to investigate TPACK's internal relations, assessing whether the framework reflects an integrative or a transformative view regarding how the TPACK knowledge domains interact. An initial questionnaire of 42 items was administered to 117 pre-service upper secondary school teachers. Reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to reduce the number of items per subscale and fit the model. Structural equation modelling investigated the internal relations between components. Results show that the final TPACK.xs questionnaire, consisting of 28 items, can be considered a valid and reliable instrument for assessing pre-service teachers' TPACK. Furthermore, the internal relations of knowledge components support a transformative view of the TPACK model.
Examining influences of science teachers' practices and beliefs about technology-based assessment on students’ performances: A hierarchical linear modeling approach by Sung-Pei Chien & Hsin-Kai Wu
This study aimed at investigating how the factors across the student and school levels would influence students' performance on a technology-based assessment (TBA). TBAs not only enable teachers to evaluate their students' complex abilities, but have also been adopted by large-scale and international evaluation programs in recent years. Although some factors such as students' engagement or teachers' beliefs about assessments have been articulated, relatively little is understood about how the factors across levels affect students' performances on TBAs. This study thus collected data of 494 science teachers and 1774 eighth and 11th graders from 32 schools, and conducted a hierarchical linear modeling analysis to provide a more accurate estimation of the effects of the variables in each level on students' performances. The results indicated the importance of students' engagement in related learning activities and their computer experiences at both the individual and school levels. Additionally, although none of the teachers' variables at the school level such as the time teachers spent on the use of various types of TBAs or their intentions to use TBAs had significant main effects on students' performances, the teachers' influence at the school level on students' learning could still be found by a significant moderating effect from teachers' usage of TBAs. Our results provide insight into how to promote students’ performance on TBAs and can contribute in various ways to future research efforts concerning the use of TBAs in classrooms.
Capturing schools' digital capacity: psychometric analyses of the SELFIE self-reflection tool by Patrícia Costa, Jonatan Castaño-Muñoz & Panagiotis Kampylis
Results from self-reflection tools for schools’ digital capacity can lead to evidence-based decisions within the school community and/or the development of an action plan for a better integration of digital technologies. Thus, it is important that the information derived from selfreflection tools is complete, accurate, and relevant. However, usually self-reflection tools do not show evidence of the quality of the information provided. In this paper, we focus on SELFIE, a new, comprehensive and customisable self-reflection tool for schools´ digital capacity, and we analyse the quality of the information that it provides. In particular, we look at discrimination and difficulty item parameters (using item response theory), we analyse the reliability (using Cronbach’s alpha and Omega) and the construct validity (using confirmatory factor analysis) of its core items. We find support for the tool quality and conclude that schools using SELFIE are provided with accurate information on their digital capacity. Additionally, we discuss ideas for further improving the tool and future research work. The innovative design of the SELFIE tool and the psychometric analyses of its core items are a novelty in the field of schools' digital capacity and can provide insights for the development of self-reflection tools for school communities.
Learning Analytics Dashboards for Adaptive Support in Face-to-Face Collaborative Argumentation by Jeongyun Han, Kwan Hoon Kim, Wonjong Rhee & Young Hoan Cho
Despite the potential of learning analytics for personalized learning, it has seldom been used to support collaborative learning particularly in face-to-face (F2F) learning contexts. This study aims to use learning analytics to develop a dashboard system that provides adaptive support for F2F collaborative argumentation (FCA). This study developed two types of dashboards for students and an instructor, which enabled students to monitor their FCA process through adaptive feedback and helped an instructor to provide adaptive support at the right time. The effectiveness of the dashboards was examined in a university class with 88 students (56 females, 32 males) for four weeks. The dashboards significantly improved the FCA process and outcomes. The dashboards encouraged students to actively participate in FCA and create high-quality group arguments. In addition, students had a positive attitude toward the dashboard and perceived it as useful and easy to use. These findings indicate that learning analytics dashboards can be useful in improving collaborative learning through adaptive feedback and support. This study provides suggestions on how to design a dashboard for adaptive support in F2F learning contexts using learning analytics.
The potential of digital tools to enhance mathematics and science learning in secondary schools: A context-specific meta-analysis by Delia Hillmayr, Lisa Ziernwald, Frank Reinhold, Sarah I. Hofer & Kristina M. Reiss
Based on systematic research of studies published since the year 2000, this comprehensive meta-analysis investigated how the use of technology can enhance learning in secondary school mathematics and science (grade levels 5–13). All studies (k = 92) compared learning outcomes of students using digital tools to those of a control group taught without the use of digital tools. Overall, digital tool use had a positive effect on student learning outcomes (g = 0.65, p < .001). The provision of teacher trainings on digital tool use significantly moderated the overall effect. Use of intelligent tutoring systems or simulations such as dynamic mathematical tools was significantly more beneficial than hypermedia systems. On a descriptive level, the effect size was larger when digital tools were used in addition to other instruction methods and not as a substitute. The results open up new directions for future research and can inform evidence-based decision-making on the use of digital tools in education.
Detecting latent topics and trends in educational technologies over four decades using structural topic modeling: A retrospective of all volumes of Computers & Education by Xieling Chen, Di Zou, Gary Cheng & Haoran Xie
Computers & Education has been leading the field of computers in education for over 40 years, during which time it has developed into a well-known journal with significant influences on the educational technology research community. Questions such as “in what research topics were the academic community of Computers & Education interested?” “how did such research topics evolve over time?” and “what were the main research concerns of its major contributors?” are important to both the editorial board and readership of Computers & Education. To address these issues, this paper conducted a structural topic modeling analysis of 3963 articles published in Computers & Education between 1976 and 2018 bibliometrically. A structural topic model was used to profile the research hotspots. By further exploring annual topic proportion trends and topic correlations, potential future research directions and inter-topic research areas were identified. The major research concerns of the publications in Computers & Education by prolific countries/regions were shown and compared. Thus, this work provided useful insights and implications, and it could be used as a guide for contributors to Computers & Education.
Assessing children's reading comprehension on paper and screen: A mode-effect study by Hildegunn Støle, Anne Mangen & Knut Schwippert
Recent meta-analyses (Delgado et al., 2018; Kong et al., 2018; Clinton, 2019) show that reading comprehension on paper is better than on screen among (young) adults. Children's screen reading comprehension, however, is underexplored. This article presents an experiment measuring the effect of reading medium on younger (10-year old) readers' comprehension, carried out in Norway in 2015. In a within-subjects design, students (n = 1139) took two comparable versions of a reading comprehension test – one on paper, and another digitally, with test version and order of medium counterbalanced. Probabilistic test theory models (two-parameter logistic (2 PL) and partial credit models) were employed for both versions of the test, allowing direct comparisons of student achievement across media. Results showed that the students in average achieved lower scores on the digital test than on the paper version. Almost a third of the students performed better on the paper test than they did on the computer test, and the negative effect of screen reading was most pronounced among high-performing girls. Scrolling and/or misplaced digital reading habits may be salient factors behind this difference, which sheds further light on children's reading performance and how this may be affected by screen technologies. Implications of these findings for education and for reading assessment are discussed.
Chatbots for learning: A review of educational chatbots for the Facebook Messenger by Pavel Smutny & Petra Schreiberova
With the exponential growth in the mobile device market over the last decade, chatbots are becoming an increasingly popular option to interact with users, and their popularity and adoption are rapidly spreading. These mobile devices change the way we communicate and allow ever-present learning in various environments. This study examined educational chatbots for Facebook Messenger to support learning. The independent web directory was screened to assess chatbots for this study resulting in the identification of 89 unique chatbots. Each chatbot was classified by language, subject matter and developer's platform. Finally, we evaluated 47 educational chatbots using the Facebook Messenger platform based on the analytic hierarchy process against the quality attributes of teaching, humanity, affect, and accessibility. We found that educational chatbots on the Facebook Messenger platform vary from the basic level of sending personalized messages to recommending learning content. Results show that chatbots which are part of the instant messaging application are still in its early stages to become artificial intelligence teaching assistants. The findings provide tips for teachers to integrate chatbots into classroom practice and advice what types of chatbots they can try out.
The effect of feedback on metacognition - A randomized experiment using polling technology by François Molin, Carla Haelermans, Sofie Cabus & Wim Groot
This study explores the effects of formative feedback on students' metacognitive skills when using feedback strategies with polling technology. Using a randomized field experiment among 633 physics students in six schools in Dutch secondary education, we study assessments with the polling technology Socrative, by dividing students into three groups. Students in the cooperative group use a combination of peer discussions and teacher feedback, while students in the individual group use teacher feedback. To compare differences in metacognitive skills, students in the control group only use Socrative, but do not receive formative feedback from either teacher or peers. The results show that there is a significant positive effect of the cooperative treatment on both metacognitive skills and motivation in comparison with the control group. We find that students with low metacognitive skills benefit significantly more from the cooperative treatment than students with high metacognitive skills. No effects are found for the individual treatment. However, girls significantly increase their metacognitive skills and are more motivated than boys, when using an individual treatment. Additionally, a mediation analysis shows that motivation partially mediates the cooperative treatment and metacognitive skills. Based on these results, we recommend a combination of peer discussions and teacher feedback in physics courses.
Multimodal digital classroom assessments by Henning Fjørtoft
Despite the widespread adoption of multimodal and digital modes of representation outside school settings, classroom assessment practices rely more on conventional print media and less on digital technologies. Stronger connections between the use of ICT in schools, contextual factors, and theoretical approaches are needed if teachers are to use digital tools effectively in the classroom. This study explores multimodal digital classroom assessments (MDCAs) as a subset of classroom assessments. Combining multimodal perspectives with performance assessment theory, the paper analyzes three examples of MDCAs developed in collaboration with practitioners as part of a formative experiment and discusses their affordances and potential relevance for practice. MDCAs may offer richer repertoires of modalities for students and teachers. However, implementing MDCAs requires continuous attention to validity, literacy demands, and management of the longitudinal nature of certain MDCAs. Therefore, to provide a meaningful picture of student learning, design processes should consider how evidence from MDCAs complements conventional assessment practices.
Digital literacy and the national curriculum for England: Learning from how the experts engage with and evaluate online content by Gianfranco Polizzi
Educationalists' and policymakers’ curriculum work on digital literacy in England has overlooked the expertise of digital specialists such as information, IT and media professionals. Given the lack of evidence, this article draws on semi-structured interviews with experts in the United Kingdom, enhanced by a diary methodology and a conversational approach to the think aloud method, to explore how they engage with and evaluate online content. In doing so, it addresses what digital literacy entails and how to promote it across the national curriculum for England. It is argued that the ability to evaluate online content involves not only reflections on the nature and origin of information, contextual knowledge and the use of multiple sources, but also functional and critical digital skills and knowledge about the internet and the digital environment. Relatedly, it is argued that the Citizenship and Computing curricula should be revised to promote digital literacy as a cross-curricular subject.
Effects of audio support on multimedia learning processes and outcomes in students with dyslexia by Carolien A.N. Knoop-van Campen, Eliane Segers & Ludo Verhoeven
Adding audio to written text may cause redundancy effects, but could be beneficial for students with dyslexia for whom it supports their reading. Studying both learning process and learning outcomes in students with and without dyslexia can shed light on this issue and helps to find out whether there are constraints to the redundancy effect as proposed in the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. We examined to what extent adding -redundant- audio affects multimedia learning in 42 university students with dyslexia and 44 typically developing students. Participants studied two user-paced multimedia lessons (text-picture, text-audio-picture) with retention and transfer post-tests. An SMI RED-500 eye-tracker captured eye-movements during learning. Regarding process measures, students had longer study times, with more focus on pictures, and more transitions between text and pictures in the text-audio-picture condition. Regarding learning outcomes, negative redundancy effects on transfer knowledge (deep learning), but not on (factual) retention knowledge were found across both groups. When relating learning processes to learning outcomes, longer study time predicted higher transfer knowledge in both groups in the text-audio-picture condition, whereas in the text-picture condition, more study time predicted lower transfer knowledge in typically developing students only. To conclude, adding audio seems to have a negative effect on the quality of knowledge and leads to less efficient learning across the two groups. Reading ability does not impact the universality of the redundancy effect, but students with dyslexia should only use audio support when aiming to learn factual knowledge and should be aware that it increases study time.
The effect of using Kahoot! for learning – A literature review by Alf Inge Wang & Rabail Tahir
Kahoot! is a game-based learning platform used to review students' knowledge, for formative assessment or as a break from traditional classroom activities. It is among the most popular game-based learning platforms, with 70 million monthly active unique users and used by 50% of US K-12 students. Since the platform was released in 2013, many studies have been published on the effect of using Kahoot! in the classroom, but so far, no systematic analysis of the results. This article presents the results of a literature review on the effect of using Kahoot! for learning and, more specifically, on how Kahoot! affects learning performance, classroom dynamics, students' and teachers' attitudes and perceptions, and students' anxiety. The literature review includes 93 studies, and the main conclusion is that Kahoot! can have a positive effect on learning performance, classroom dynamics, students' and teachers' attitudes, and students’ anxiety. However, there are also studies where Kahoot! has little or no effect. The main challenges mentioned by students include technical problems such as unreliable internet connections, hard to read questions and answers on a projected screen, not being able to change answer after submission, stressful time-pressure for giving answers, not enough time to answer, afraid of losing, and hard to catch up if an incorrect answer had been given. Further, the main challenges mentioned by teachers include getting the difficulty level of questions and answers right, problems related to network connectivity, scoring based on how quickly the students answer reducing student reflection and cause some students to guess without thinking, that some students can have a problem with failing a quiz, and some teachers find it challenging to use the technology.
A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agenda by Jaziar Radianti, Tim A. Majchrzak, Jennifer Fromm & Isabell Wohlgenannt
Researchers have explored the benefits and applications of virtual reality (VR) in different scenarios. VR possesses much potential and its application in education has seen much research interest lately. However, little systematic work currently exists on how researchers have applied immersive VR for higher education purposes that considers the usage of both high-end and budget head-mounted displays (HMDs). Hence, we propose using systematic mapping to identify design elements of existing research dedicated to the application of VR in higher education. The reviewed articles were acquired by extracting key information from documents indexed in four scientific digital libraries, which were filtered systematically using exclusion, inclusion, semi-automatic, and manual methods. Our review emphasizes three key points: the current domain structure in terms of the learning contents, the VR design elements, and the learning theories, as a foundation for successful VR-based learning. The mapping was conducted between application domains and learning contents and between design elements and learning contents. Our analysis has uncovered several gaps in the application of VR in the higher education sphere—for instance, learning theories were not often considered in VR application development to assist and guide toward learning outcomes. Furthermore, the evaluation of educational VR applications has primarily focused on usability of the VR apps instead of learning outcomes and immersive VR has mostly been a part of experimental and development work rather than being applied regularly in actual teaching. Nevertheless, VR seems to be a promising sphere as this study identifies 18 application domains, indicating a better reception of this technology in many disciplines. The identified gaps point toward unexplored regions of VR design for education, which could motivate future work in the field.
Student Loneliness: The Role of Social Media Through Life Transitions by Lisa Thomas, Elizabeth Orme & Finola Kerrigan
The move to university can be difficult for students- a transition often characterised by a risk of loneliness and poor mental health. Previous work highlights the important role social media can play in this transition. We report findings from a large-scale survey of 510 first year undergraduates across the UK, identifying factors that predict student loneliness, and exploring their social media use. Higher levels of social capital, induction satisfaction, and sense of community are significantly associated with lower levels of loneliness. Conversely, those reporting a more ‘liminal self’- the desire to edit and reinvent yourself online - experience greater loneliness- with an indirect relationship between online social information seeking and loneliness, through social capital. We surmise that being ‘true to yourself’ online is important when starting university, and that social media can be a useful tool in facilitating offline relationships and maintaining ties to old friends.
Supporting learners' self-regulated learning in Massive Open Online Courses by Renée S. Jansen, Anouschka van Leeuwen, Jeroen Janssen, Rianne Conijn & Liesbeth Kester
In MOOCs, learners are typically presented with great autonomy over their learning process. Therefore, learners should engage in self-regulated learning (SRL) in order to successfully study in a MOOC. Learners however often struggle to self-regulate their learning. We implemented an SRL intervention in three MOOCs. The intervention consisted of three short videos containing SRL instruction and study suggestions to improve learners' SRL. We tested the effects of the SRL intervention on both learners' course completion as well as on learners' SRL. Learners' SRL was measured with trace data variables indicating SRL activity. The results showed that the intervention positively affected learners' course completion. Furthermore, the learners who complied with the intervention also engaged in more SRL activities compared to the learners in the control condition: learners who complied showed more metacognitive activities before learning (planning), help seeking, and persistence. Intervention compliance was however low. Further analyses exploring potential causes of the low intervention compliance were conducted. The great majority of learners who did not comply with the intervention dropped out of the MOOC before they encountered the implemented intervention. We conclude that the SRL intervention has been successful in supporting both learners' SRL as well as their course completion. Implications include the importance of supporting learners' SRL as well as the necessity to conduct further research on how to improve intervention compliance.
Do MOOCs contribute to student equity and social inclusion? A systematic review 2014–18 by Sarah R. Lambert
In recent years, hopes that Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) would make access to education fairer faded in the light of research showing MOOCs favoured the already educated and relatively advantaged. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature from 2014 to 2018. The aim was to investigate the extent that MOOCs and other free open education programs provide equitable forms of online education to address global widening participation agendas. The literature fell into two main groups: empirical reports on outcomes for students, and those providing policy or practitioner guidance. A globally diverse set of 46 studies and reports were examined, including 24 empirical evaluations of programs reaching over 440,000 disadvantaged learners in both distance and blended learning settings. Most literature claimed an interest in advancing student equity (enrolled or tertiary preparation learners) and/or social inclusion (community learners) with low-skills, low confidence, and/or low levels of previous education. In contrast to the existing literature, this study found that there was a flourishing of multi-lingual and Languages other than English (LOTE) programs and those addressing regional socio-economic disadvantage. Most cases involved MOOCs and free online resources combined with additional forms of support, including face-to-face study groups. Contrary to the existing debate in the open education literature, the review also found that the legal status of the learning materials (copyright or openly licenced) was of little consequence so long as it was free to the end user. What seemed to matter most was the intentional and collaborative design for disadvantaged cohorts, including the provision of digital or face-to-face personal support. Successful design collaborations often featured learner-centred, non-technical partnerships with community groups which increased the understanding of the needs of particular marginalised learners, while also providing more sustainable and distributed learner support. The review concludes that MOOCs which aim to widen participation in education are an alternative global practice that exists alongside more commercial MOOC offerings. Recommendations are provided for addressing gaps in offerings, and improving design and research.
Evaluation of e-learning for medical education in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review by Sandra Barteit, Dorota Guzek, Albrecht Jahn, Till Bärnighausen, Margarida Mendes Jorge & Florian Neuhann
In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), e-learning for medical education may alleviate the burden of severe health worker shortages and deliver affordable access to high quality medical education. However, diverse challenges in infrastructure and adoption are encountered when implementing e-learning within medical education in particular. Understanding what constitutes successful e-learning is an important first step for determining its effectiveness. The objective of this study was to systematically review e-learning interventions for medical education in LMICs, focusing on their evaluation and assessment methods.
Nine databases were searched for publications from January 2007 to June 2017. We included 52 studies with a total of 12,294 participants. Most e-learning interventions were pilot studies (73%), which mainly employed summative assessments of study participants (83%) and evaluated the e-learning intervention with questionnaires (45%). Study designs, evaluation and assessment methods showed considerable variation, as did the study quality, evaluation periods, outcome and effectiveness measures. Included studies mainly utilized subjective measures and custom-built evaluation frameworks, which resulted in both low comparability and poor validity. The majority of studies self-concluded that they had had an effective e-learning intervention, thus indicating potential benefits of e-learning for LMICs. However, MERSQI and NOS ratings revealed the low quality of the studies' evidence for comparability, evaluation instrument validity, study outcomes and participant blinding. Many e-learning interventions were small-scale and conducted as short-termed pilots. More rigorous evaluation methods for e-learning implementations in LMICs are needed to understand the strengths and shortcomings of e-learning for medical education in low-resource contexts. Valid and reliable evaluations are the foundation to guide and improve e-learning interventions, increase their sustainability, alleviate shortages in health care workers and improve the quality of medical care in LMICs.
Electronic storybook design, kindergartners' visual attention, and print awareness: An eye-tracking investigation by Chia-Ning Liao, Kuo-En Chang, Yu-Ching Huang & Yao-Ting Sung
The purpose of this study was to understand children's visual attention during shared storybook reading when the print and picture area sizes are identical, as well as to understand which electronic storybook design is best able to increase children's attention to the print and their print awareness. To this end, we modified the electronic storybook's design, measured children's print awareness, and used an eye-tracker to measure children's visual attention during reading. Sixty-one 4–5 year old Taiwanese children's data were analyzed in this study. This study was conducted over a 6-week period: one week for pretest, four weeks of intervention, and one week for posttest. After the pretest stage, the kindergartners were split into three groups: traditional storybook, highlight synchronization (implicit instruction), and print discussion (explicit instruction). The results suggested that: First, when the print and picture area sizes were identical, children spent more than 19% of their time looking at the print area, substantially higher than previous studies (e.g. Evans & Saint-Aubin, 2005; Justice, Skibbe, Canning, & Lankford, 2005; Roy-Charland, Perron, Boulard, Chamberland, & Hoffman, 2015); second, the highlight synchronization design did entice children to look at the print more (from 19% to 38% reading time); third, exposure to either the reading highlight synchronization or the print discussion storybook designs for four weeks improved the children's print awareness.
The effects of mental rotation on computational thinking by Giuseppe Città, Manuel Gentile, Mario Allegra, Marco Arrigo, Daniela Conti, Simona Ottaviano, Francesco Reale & Marinella Sciortino
Although several investigations of spatial reasoning and mental rotation skills have been conducted in research areas linked to STEM education, to the best of our knowledge, few of these studies have examined the relationship between spatial reasoning and computational thinking. Given this gap in the literature, the present study investigates the role and action of spatial reasoning, and specifically the effects of mental rotation on computational thinking within an embodied and enacted perspective. To achieve this, we carried out a study involving 92 students in five primary-school classes (1st grade - 5th grade). The findings reveal a positive correlation between computational thinking skill and mental rotation ability.
The Influence of Values on E-learning Adoption by Ashwin Mehta, Neil P. Morris, Bronwen Swinnerton & Matt Homer
As technology continues to pervade our lives, the influence of culture on technology adoption is of significant interest to researchers. However, culture, as a group-level construct may not give meaningful results when related to individual-level adoption. Although culture has been integrated into technology adoption models, values are the individual-level representation of culture, and are more appropriate to include in technology adoption models. There have been few studies attempting to explore the influence of values on adoption models, and none within the sphere of digital education. The purpose of this exploratory study is to integrate values with technology adoption models and apply the novel conceptual model to the context of digital education. In this study we investigate the influence of individual-level values on the adoption of e-learning by workers in The Gambia and the UK. Using the Unified Theory of the Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) as a base model, we integrate values relating to conservation of the status quo and self-enhancement from Schwartz's Theory of Human Values. Taking this approach, we develop and introduce the Values-Enhanced Technology Adoption (VETA) model. We tested the VETA model on the adoption of e-learning by workers in The Gambia and the UK. Empirical results demonstrated the influence of self-enhancement values in the model via social influence, price value and performance expectancy. The UTAUT2 base model was partially validated in that performance expectancy, price value and habit primarily influenced worker intention to use e-learning. We conclude that VETA will be a useful model to researchers studying technology adoption.
Flipping the medical classroom: Effect on workload, interactivity, motivation and retention of knowledge by Rianne A.M. Bouwmeester, Renske A.M. de Kleijn, Inge E.T. van den Berg, Olle Th.J. ten Cate, Harold V.M. van Rijen & Hendrika E. Westerveld
Engagement with homework assignments is important to be able to actively process content during in-class activities in flipped classroom education. Active engagement with the content is assumed to promote deeper understanding and to improve retention of knowledge. This comparative case study aims to explore student workload during homework activities and examines in-class activities next to student motivation and their retention of knowledge in both traditional education and flipped classrooms.
This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a Hematology and Oncology course, which is scheduled in the second year of medical education, in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Students’ self-reported study time in traditional classrooms (2014) and flipped classrooms (2015) were measured during one course with a daily online questionnaire and in-class activities were explored using an observation scheme and audio recordings. Cognitive evaluation theory was used to investigate student motivation by measuring perceived autonomy and competence (self-efficacy) of students at the end of the course. Knowledge retention and self-efficacy were (again) measured after 10 months.
The in-class observations suggested more interactivity in flipped classrooms. All participating students reported similar workload during the course, whereas exam preparation after flipped classrooms was significantly less time consuming. Students in flipped classrooms reported higher scores for self-efficacy, whereas perceived autonomy was comparable to students learning in traditional classrooms. Ten months after the course, retention of knowledge and self-efficacy scores showed no difference.
This study indicated that flipped classroom education required less time investment when preparing for the end-of-course exam and students perceived higher self-efficacy, which is relevant in the light of student stress and burn-out. However, comparison of long-term measurements (retention of knowledge and self-efficacy) showed similar outcomes for students in traditional classrooms and flipped classrooms. It would be interesting to learn whether students trained in flipped classroom education turn out to be better problem solvers in their future careers. For example, if the students in this study are better able to handle patient cases during their clinical rotations.
Exploring sequences of learner activities in relation to self-regulated learning in a massive open online course by Jacqueline Wong, Mohammad Khalil, Martine Baars, Björn B. de Koning & Fred Paas
Self-regulated learning (SRL) refers to how learners steer their own learning. Supporting SRL has been shown to enhance the use of SRL strategies and learning performance in computer-based learning environments. However, little is known about supporting SRL in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In this study, weekly SRL prompts were embedded as videos in a MOOC. We employed a sequential pattern mining algorithm, Sequential Pattern Discovery using Equivalence classes (cSPADE), on gathered log data to explore whether differences exist between learners who viewed the SRL-prompt videos and those who did not. Results showed that SRL-prompt viewers interacted with more course activities and completed these activities in a more similar sequential pattern than non SRL-prompt viewers. Also, SRL-prompt viewers tended to follow the course structure, which has been identified as a behavioral characteristic of students who scored higher on SRL (i.e., comprehensive learners) in previous research. Based on the results, implications for supporting SRL in MOOCs are discussed.
Investigating the effect of pre-training when learning through immersive virtual reality and video: A media and methods experiment by Oliver A. Meyer, Magnus K. Omdahl & Guido Makransky
Immersive virtual reality (VR) is predicted to have a significant impact on education; but most studies investigating learning with immersive VR have reported mixed results when compared to low-immersion media. In this study, a sample of 118 participants was used to test whether a lesson presented in either immersive VR or as a video could benefit from the pre-training principle, as a means of reducing cognitive load. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two method conditions (with/without pre-training), and one of two media conditions (immersive VR/video). The results showed an interaction between media and method, indicating that pre-training had a positive effect on knowledge (d = 0.81), transfer (d = 0.62), and self-efficacy (d = 0.64) directly following the intervention; and on self-efficacy (d = 0.84) in a one-week delayed post-test in the immersive VR condition. No effect was found for any of these variables within the video condition.
Practicing abductive reasoning: The correlations between cognitive factors and learning effects by Ming-Yueh Hwang, Jon-Chao Hong, Jian-Hong Ye, Yu-Feng Wu, Kai-Hsin Tai & Ming-Chi Kiu
The game design for students to practice reasoning skills is very important for improving learning effectiveness. To date, abductive, inductive and deductive reasoning are considered as equally important for developing students’ thinking skills, but only a few games have been designed for students to practice abductive reasoning. Thus, in this study, we designed a game named V-aquarium for junior high school students to practice abduction while learning science knowledge. To explore the effectiveness of the gameplay, using abductive reasoning, we attempted to understand the correlations between epistemic curiosity, cognitive fatigue, perceived learning value, and gameplay progress. A total of 307 valid data were collected for confirmatory analysis. The results revealed that two types of epistemic curiosity (interest-type and deprivation-type) were negatively related to cognitive fatigue but were positively related to the perceived learning value of gameplay (PLVG); cognitive fatigue was not significantly related to gameplay progress but was positively associated with the perceived learning value of gameplay. The implication of this study is that teachers could use V-aquarium to input the learning content they have taught for students to practice abduction in order to enhance their science knowledge learning.
The relation between students’ socioeconomic status and ICT literacy: Findings from a meta-analysis by Ronny Scherer and Fazilat Siddiq
This meta-analysis synthesized the relation between measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and students' information and communication technology (ICT) literacy—a skillset that has found its way in educational curricula. Using three-level random-effects modeling across 32 independent K-12 student samples that provided 75 correlation coefficients, we identified a positive, significant, and small correlation, r = 0.214, 95% CI [0.184, 0.244]. This correlation varied between studies and was moderated by the type of SES measure, the type of ICT literacy assessment, the broad categories of ICT skills assessed, the assessment of test fairness, and the sampling procedure employed. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that students’ ICT literacy differs between socioeconomic status groups, thus pointing to a gap in the domain of ICT. However, the relation between SES and ICT literacy was weaker than those reported in other educational domains, such as mathematics and reading. Carefully designed studies and measures for which a validity argument has been crafted are needed when studying achievement gaps in the domain of ICT in future studies.
When it comes to MOOCs, where you are from makes a difference by Bahaa G. Gameel & Karin Gwinn Wilkins
Millions of learners have enrolled in MOOCs in the last few years. However, little is known about the essential skills students need to succeed in MOOCs. Even less is known about how country of origin or other aspects such as gender might affect these skills. By integrating the resources and appropriation scholarship with second-level digital divide research, this study considers skills used to engage ICTs with self-efficacy and locus of control among MOOC learners from five regions. Results from surveying 2882 learners who enrolled in five English and Arabic MOOCs reveal significant differences among learners from various regions. Based on the region in which they live, some of the learners have significantly higher skills than learners in other regions. Furthermore, male learners from three of the five regions have higher levels of engagement with ICTs than female learners. These findings inspire important considerations for future educational programs.
Using simulations to teach young students science concepts: An Experiential Learning theoretical analysis by Garry Falloon
Early research investigated young students' understandings of science concepts using physical equipment, but technological advances now mean there are new options to introduce these ideas, through devices such as iPads and simulations. However, research investigating the use of simulations in early years' science learning is limited. This study applied revisions of Kolb's Experiential Learning theoretical model to determine if age-indicated science simulations were effective for teaching 5 year olds simple circuit building procedures and electricity concepts, and the function of circuit components. It also explored whether their engagement with the simulations provided worthwhile opportunities to exercise higher order capabilities such as reflective thinking and abstraction – skills oftencited in literature as valuable outcomes from older student and adult use of simulations. Findings indicate students developed a solid base of procedural knowledge about constructing different circuits, and functional knowledge about circuit components they applied to different circuit designs. The emergence of tentative, generalised theories about current and the effects of different circuit designs on the performance of resistors - linked to the exercise of reflective and descriptive thinking, were also noted in many students. However, examples were found of some simulations appearing to foster common misconceptions, such as current being ‘consumed’ by resistors – indicating teachers need to be highly vigilant and work closely with students, to ensure accurate understandings are developed. Overall, with appropriate teacher support and careful selection and review, the study concludes simulations can be effective for introducing young students to simple physical science concepts, and for providing them with opportunities to engage in higher order thinking processes.
Cheat-resistant multiple-choice examinations using personalization by Sathiamoorthy Manoharan
Multiple-choice examinations offer the ability to grade quickly as well as being able to assess concepts and understanding in a wide range of subjects. Consequently, many large classes use multiple-choice examinations. One problem, however, is that multiple-choice examinations are more prone to cheating than constructed-response style examinations. Multiple-choice examinations offer limited answer options, and these limited options can lead to sharing answers through collusion or gleaning answers from unwitting peers. To counter such cheating, this paper investigates a personalization approach to examinations whereby every student gets their own version of the examination that is different to the rest of their peers. Such personalization approach not only counters cheating, but also encourages students to focus on concepts rather than just answers. A software framework that facilitates generating personalized examination papers is developed, and the paper reports on the experience of using the approach in large classes. It discusses the administrative, technical, and pedagogical challenges posed by personalization and how these challenges might be overcome using the framework as well as accompanying processes. Surveys indicate that both students and staff are positive about using such a system.
The role of planning in complex problem solving by Beate Eichmann, Frank Goldhammer, Samuel Greiff, Liene Pucite & Johannes Naumann
Complex problem solving (CPS) is a highly transversal competence needed in educational and vocational settings as well as everyday life. The assessment of CPS is often computer-based, and therefore provides data regarding not only the outcome but also the process of CPS. However, research addressing this issue is scarce. In this article we investigated planning activities in the process of complex problem solving. We operationalized planning through three behavioral measures indicating the duration of the longest planning interval, the delay of the longest planning interval and the variance of intervals between each two successive interactions. We found a significant negative average effect for our delay indicator, indicating that early planning in CPS is more beneficial. However, we also found effects depending on task and interaction effects for all three indicators, suggesting that the effects of different planning behaviors on CPS are highly intertwined.
Virtual learning environment engagement and learning outcomes at a ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university by Chris A. Boulton, Carmel Kent & Hywel T.P. Williams
In this study, we analyse the relationship between engagement in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and module grades at a ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university in the United Kingdom. We measure VLE activity for students enrolled in 38 different credit-bearing modules, each of which are compulsory components of six degree programmes. Overall we find that high VLE activity is associated with high grades, but low activity does not necessarily imply low grades. Analysis of individual modules shows a wide range of relationships between the two quantities. Grouping module-level relationships by programme suggests that science-based subjects have a higher dependency on VLE activity. Considering learning design (LD), we find that VLE usage is more important in modules that adopt an instruction-based learning style. We also test the predictive power of VLE usage in determining grades, again finding variation between degree programmes and potential for predicting a student's final grade weeks in advance of assessment. Our findings suggest that student engagement with learning at a bricks-and-mortar university is in general hard to determine by VLE usage alone, due to the predominance of other “offline” learning activities, but that VLE usage can nonetheless help to predict performance for some disciplines.
Developing metadiscourse through reflective assessment in knowledge building environments by Chunlin Lei & Carol K.K. Chan
This study examined how reflective assessment supported by principles facilitated metadiscourse for knowledge advances mediated by Knowledge Forum® (KF). Participants were 60 tertiary students in two classes engaging in knowledge building and reflecting on their collaborative knowledge building using e-portfolios; one class was a principle-based knowledge-building environment (KBP, n = 30), and the other a regular knowledge-building environment (KBR, n = 30). The KF embedded assessment tools, the Analytical Toolkit and Applet, showed increased KF participation and connectedness during the year. Regression analysis showed that KF participation predicted conceptual understanding for both classes. Analyses of e-portfolios revealed that the students adopted nine reflective strategies in knowledge building, and that reflective metadiscourse strategies involving metacognitive and collective processes were related with deeper conceptual understanding. Analyses of online discourse threads further showed that metadiscourse involving collective processes was associated with higher levels of knowledge advances. Both classes showed improvement and the KBP class outperformed the KBR class on KF participation, metadiscourse processes and conceptual understanding. This study has theoretical implications advancing the idea of metadiscourse, discourse about discourse, for enriching research on knowledge building and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). There are also design implications for using principle-based e-portfolios to facilitate collective reflection and metadiscourse to address issues of fragmented online discussion, and for promoting sustained inquiry.
Regulation of collaboration in project-based learning mediated by CSCL scripting reflection by Jin Michael Splichal, Jun Oshima & Ritsuko Oshima
Many studies attempt to effectively support student regulation of collaboration using CSCL tools to enrich learning outcomes. However, few studies are aimed at facilitating development of students' internal scripts for regulation of collaboration. This study focuses on developing and evaluating a computer-mediated learning environment for project-based learning to facilitate student internal scripts for regulation by designing external scripts for effective reflection. Forty-eight first-year university students participated in this study as part of their curriculum. Our analyses of their internal scripts before and after PBL participation revealed that significantly more students who encountered an unfamiliar situation during collaboration constructed new regulation scripts. Moreover, in case studies, we found that students augmented their scripts for socially shared regulation when recognizing socio-cognitive challenges, whereas they augmented co-regulation and self-regulation scripts when recognizing socio-emotional challenges.
Strengthening dialogic peer feedback aiming for deep learning in SPOCs by Renée M. Filius, Renske A.M. de Kleijn, Sabine G. Uijl, Frans J. Prins, Harold V.M. van Rijen & Diederick E. Grobbee
This study is focused on how peer feedback in SPOCs (Small Private Online Courses) can effectively lead to deep learning. Promoting deep learning in online courses, such as SPOCs, is often a challenge. We aimed for deep learning by reinforcement of ‘feedback dialogue’ as scalable intervention.
Students provided peer feedback as a dialogue, both individually and as a group. They were instructed to rate each other's feedback, which was aimed at deep learning. Data from questionnaires from 41 students of a master epidemiology course were used to measure for each feedback assignment to what extent deep learning was perceived. The feedback received by students who scored extremely high or low on the questionnaire was analyzed in order to find out which features of the feedback led to deep learning. In addition, students were interviewed to retrieve information about the underlying mechanisms.
The results support the view that peer feedback instruction and peer feedback rating lead to peer feedback dialogues that, in turn, promote deep learning in SPOCs. The value of peer feedback appears to predominantly result from the dialogue it triggers, rather than the feedback itself. Especially helpful for students is the constant attention to how one provides peer feedback: by instruction, by having to rate feedback and therefore by repeatedly having to reflect. The dialogue is strengthened because students question feedback from peers in contrast to feedback from their instructor. As a result, they continue to think longer and deeper, which enables deep learning.
Using enhanced OER videos to facilitate English L2 learners’ multicultural competence by Yu-Ju Lin and Hung-Chun Wang
This study investigated whether applying enhanced open educational resource (OER) videos in English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classes could improve university students' multicultural competence, and it also explored their perceptions of OERs. The study was implemented with 65 students who were enrolled in two General English classes at a public university in Taiwan. Videos of two TED Talks that carried different multicultural themes were adopted for the purpose of developing the students' multicultural competence and English skills. For each of the videos, the students watched a presentation before class and discussed it with their peers in the class meeting. Data collected from an Intercultural Competence Scale, OER Perception Survey, and post-intervention interviews were analyzed to address the research issues. Results showed that the OER intervention was particularly helpful to the students' use of communicative strategies and attentive preparation for multicultural encounters. The intervention also reinforced their beliefs in the educational value of OERs. Based on the results, pedagogical implications are discussed to provide insights into how to integrate OERs into EFL curricula to facilitate students’ multicultural competence.
Exploring four decades of research in Computers & Education by Olaf Zawacki-Richter & Colin Latchem
A content analysis of abstracts and titles of 3674 full papers in Computers & Education published between 1976 and 2016 was conducted in order to a) identify and analyze their thematic and conceptual flow, b) how these reflected the evolving technologies and theories and c) how the research topics and concepts semantically related to each other. Abstracts and titles can be considered appropriate for such conceptual analysis since they are lexically dense and focus on the core issues presented in articles. Based on a relational concept analysis using a text-mining tool, the study revealed that over the course of these 40 years, the articles progressed through four distinct stages, reflecting major developments in educational technology and theories of learning with media: the advancement and growth of computer-based instruction (1976–1986); stand-alone multimedia learning (1987–1996); networked computers as tools for collaborative learning (1997–2006); and online learning in a digital age (2007–2016). The paper concludes by suggesting that such mapping and analysis of the literature in this and other fields of educational technology, including non-English language journals, books and conference proceedings, can provide a valuable overview of research and scholarship for communities of practice and inquiry around the globe.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a game-based rational number training - In-game metrics as learning indicators by Kristian Kiili, Korbinian Moeller & Manuel Ninaus
It was argued recently that number line based training supports the development of conceptual rational number knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated training effects of a digital game based on the measurement interpretation of rational numbers. Ninety-five fourth graders were assigned to either a game-based training group (n = 54) who played a digital rational number game for five 30-min sessions or a control group (n = 41) who attended regular math curriculum. Conceptual rational number knowledge was assessed in a pre- and posttest session. Additionally, the game groups' playing behavior was evaluated. Results indicated that the game-based training group improved their conceptual rational number knowledge significantly more strongly than the control group. In particular, improvement of the game-based training group was driven by significant performance increases in number magnitude estimation and ordering tasks. Moreover, results revealed that in-game metrics, such as overall game performance and maximum level achieved provided valid information about students’ conceptual rational number knowledge at posttest. Therefore, results of the current study not only suggest that aspects of conceptual rational number knowledge can be improved by a game-based training but also that in-game metrics provide crucial indicators for learning.
A review of the types of mobile activities in mobile inquiry-based learning by Ángel Suárez, Marcus Specht, Fleur Prinsen, Marco Kalz & Stefaan Ternier
Inquiry-based Learning is increasingly suggested as an efficient approach for fostering learners' curiosity and motivation. It helps learners to develop their ability to work in complex and unpredictable environments making them more critical thinkers and agentic learners. Although mobile technology is a suitable support for this learning process, there is a lack of practical strategies for educational practitioners to enact the right balance between enabling agency and supporting the students through the mobile technology. Thus, we conducted a literature review that analyzed 62 studies on mobile inquiry-based learning. The analysis focused on the level of agency supported by mobile technology. This review study provided two main results. The first result is a two-layer classification –with five types and twelve subtypes– of the most common mobile activities used in inquiry-based learning. The types and subtypes are: 1) Direct instruction formed by 1a) location guidance, 1b) procedural guidance and 1c) metacognitive guidance, 2) Access to content formed by 2a) fixed and 2b) dynamic content, 3) Data collection that consists of 3a) cooperative and 3b) collaborative data collection, 4) Peer-to-peer communication formed by 4a) asynchronous and 4b) synchronous social communications and 5) Contextual support that includes 5a) augmented experience, 5b) immersive experience and 5c) adaptive feedback. The second result consists of an analytical framework –based on six dimensions– to assess the level of agency supported by the different types of mobile activities. The learners' agency dimensions are: 1) Goals, 2) Content, 3) Actions, 4) Strategies, 5) Reflection and 6) Monitoring. Finally, the review presents insights on how this analytical framework can be used by educational practitioners to identify mobile activities that effectively balance learners’ agency with mobile technology.
9. The Internet and Higher Education Full Text and Open Access ArticlesClick to read
Dialogicality in making sense of online collaborative interaction: A conceptual perspective by Maarit Arvaja & Raija Hämäläinen
In higher education, learning activities increasingly take place in online collaborative groups. In this conceptual paper, we explore online collaborative interaction from the perspective of dialogicality. We aim to reconceptualize the notion of “productive interaction” and the typical focus of its research by turning attention to the dialogic features of collaborative interaction, especially the notions of alterity, dialogic attitude, and dialogic orientation. In relation to this, we offer a contextual perspective on collaborative interaction. Relying on data from an online university course, we conceptually analyze specified components of dialogicality. This article illustrates and explores the conceptual framework that connects different contexts in dialogic meaning-making. We also discuss our conceptual and empirical exploration from the pedagogical perspective.
Experts speaking: Crucial teacher attributes for implementing blended learning in higher education by Bram Bruggeman, Jo Tondeur, Katrien Struyven, Bram Pynoo, Anja Garone & Silke Vanslambrouck
While blended learning in higher education is valued for various reasons such as addressing students' needs for flexibility, blended learning implementation remains a challenging process. Because the teacher lies at the heart of any educational change process, the current qualitative study investigates crucial teacher attributes for blended learning implementation from the perspective of experts. Experts can analyze deep structures of complex organizational problems and hold process knowledge that can generate practical effect. Twelve expert interviews are conducted and reveal two groups of blended learning teacher attributes: seven adaptive attributes such as realizing a pedagogical need for change or creatively connecting technologies to learning processes, and four maladaptive attributes such as a need for a clear understanding of blended learning or feeling anxious about (the implications of) technology. This study utilizes a holistic approach to identify related teacher attributes that critically influence the implementation of blended learning in higher education.
Embedded experts in online collaborative learning: A case study by Jennifer Lock & Petrea Redmond
The affordance of online communication and collaboration technology provides a forum for preservice teachers, practicing teachers, and teacher educators to engage in authentic discourse where multiple perspectives can be shared. This qualitative case study explores the perceptions and experiences of embedded experts in a global learning community that occurred over a 12 year period. The study was designed using the Online Collaborative Learning Framework developed by the authors in 2006. The goal of the study was to provide a nuanced understanding of embedded experts in online discussion that engage in real world issues related to today's diverse and digital classrooms. From the thematic analysis of the data, the following three implications emerged: Purposeful selection of technology; orientation and supports for the experts; and design of an organic environment that fosters the development of community including embedded experts.
How internet essay mill websites portray the student experience of higher education by Charles Crook & Elizabeth Nixon
Higher education is under mounting pressure to confront student practices of assignment outsourcing to internet services. The scale and buoyancy of this ‘essay mill’ industry has now been well documented, including its various marketing techniques for urging students to purchase bespoke academic work. However, the inherently suspect nature of such services demands that they adopt a particularly shrewd and empathic rhetoric to win custom from website visitors. In this paper, we investigate how such rhetoric currently constructs a critical version of the student's higher education experience. We present a thematic analysis of promotional text and images as found on a large sample of essay mill sites. Findings reveal how these sites promulgate a hostile and negative attitude towards higher educational practice. Yet these findings may also indicate where the higher education sector needs to reflect on its practice, not least in order to resist the toxic messages of essay mills.
Modeling undergraduates' selection of course modality: A large sample, multi-discipline study by Kevin O'Neill, Natália Lopes, John Nesbit, Suzanne Reinhardt & Kanthi Jayasundera
Scholarly understanding is limited with regard to what influences students' choice to take a particular course fully online or in-person. We surveyed 650 undergraduates at a public Canadian university who were enrolled in courses that were offered in both modalities during the same semester, for roughly the same tuition cost. The courses spanned a wide range of disciplines, from archaeology to computing science. Twenty-five variables were gauged, covering areas including students' personal circumstances, their competence in the language of instruction, previous experience with online courses, grade expectations, and psychological variables including their regulation of their time and study environment, work avoidance and social goal orientation. Two logistic regression models (of modality of enrolment and modality of preference) both had good fit to the data, each correctly classifying roughly 75% of cases using different variables. Implications for instructional design and enrolment management are discussed.
Purposeful interpersonal interaction and the point of diminishing returns for graduate learners by Scott Mehall
Social constructivist based course designs in online learning are emphasized in higher education as a way to highlight and capitalize on the benefits of interpersonal interaction. Course designers have generally taken a “more is better” approach to interpersonal interaction; however, some evidence points to a point of diminishing returns for interpersonal interaction. Purposeful interpersonal interaction (PII) is a framework for identifying high quality interpersonal interactions which are demonstrated to lead to better student outcomes. This study attempted to shed insight on how PII relates to student satisfaction and perceived learning in asynchronous environments by comparing courses in two graduate business programs. Results demonstrated that greater PII does generally lead to greater student satisfaction and perceived learning. Comparison of the programs also revealed that similar levels of satisfaction and learning can be achieved despite lesser levels of PII, giving evidence of a point of diminishing returns.
Learner participation profiles in an asynchronous online collaboration context by Min Kyu Kim & Tuba Ketenci
The purpose of this study was to propose and validate a measurable model of learner participation in the context of online asynchronous discussion. We supplemented the findings of a main study (Study 1) with an empirical case study (Study 2). In Study 1, we modeled three levels of learner participation: peripheral participant, inbound participant, and full participant. Subsequent validation tests confirmed that the proposed learner participation profiles were sufficiently distinct from one another in terms of message quality and final score. Study 2 demonstrated how the profiling method might be duplicated in various online collaborative learning contexts. In addition, the case study further demonstrated the validity and reliability of the profiles using mixed data. The results show that the classifications explained learner engagement level in three dimensions: cognition, behavior, and emotion.
Eliciting the challenges and opportunities organizations face when delivering open online education: A group-concept mapping study by Martine Schophuizen, Karel Kreijns, Slavi Stoyanov & Marco Kalz
The global attention for open online education (OOE) caused a situation in which higher education institutions (HEIs) reconsider the way they deliver education to the population. With a funding policy, the Dutch Government aims to stimulate OOE in HEIs. The goal is to create more expedient, accessible and personalized learning experiences, that contribute to an improvement of quality of education and study success. However, many projects are failing to embed OOE within the institution. In this study, we elicited the challenges and opportunities of OOE projects within an organizational context of Dutch HEIs by using group concept mapping. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering resulted in a cluster map and a pattern match graph for interpreting the experts' ideas and opinions, clarifying and structuring the collective understanding. Core themes that represent the challenges and opportunities with regard to OOE identified in this study were: 1. Online teaching, 2. Supporting mechanisms, 3. Assessment, 4. External target groups, 5. Educational flexibility, 6. Quality of education, 7. Institutional reputation, and 8. Educational efficiency. The results indicated a skills gap among educators and a lack of central support for the development of OOE. Organizational efforts to implement OOE should take educational flexibility and online teaching into account and support mechanisms for OOE should be provided.
10. Journal of Science Teacher Education Open Access Articles
Teacher-Directed Versus Inquiry-Based Science Instruction: Investigating Links to Adolescent Students’ Science Dispositions Across 66 Countries by Shaljan Areepattamannil,Dean Cairns & Martina Dickson
Teacher-directed and inquiry-based science instructional practices have been shown to influence students’ performance on science assessments. However, only a small body of research has examined the associations of teacher-directed and inquiry-based science instructional practices with science-related dispositions among adolescent students using nationally representative samples drawn from countries across the globe. Hence, the present study, employing multilevel path analyses as an analytic strategy, investigated the relations of teacher-directed and inquiry-based science instruction to students’ science-related dispositions, such as enjoyment of science, interest in broad science topics, instrumental motivation to learn science, science self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs about science, among 428,197 adolescent students from 15,644 schools in 66 countries. Results of multilevel path analyses, after controlling for student-, school-, and country-level demographic and socio-economic factors, revealed that teacher-directed science instruction was significantly positively related to adolescent students’ enjoyment of science, interest in broad science topics, instrumental motivation to learn science, science self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs about science. Similarly, inquiry-based science instruction was also significantly positively linked to enjoyment of science, interest in broad science topics, instrumental motivation to learn science, and science self-efficacy. However, inquiry-based science instruction was not significantly associated with students’ epistemological beliefs about science. The findings of the current study suggest that a blend of teacher-directed and inquiry-based science instruction may be more appropriate for developing and nurturing students’ positive dispositions toward science. However, science teachers may require sufficient training and support to successfully implement the blended instruction model in their classrooms.
Professional Knowledge for Teaching in Student Teachers’ Conversations about Field Experiences by Marlene Sjöberg & Eva Nyberg
Professional knowledge for science teaching develops over time and interplays with professional experiences in field. In the present study, we explore student teachers’ reflective conversation upon teaching experiences, with pedagogical content knowledge, PCK, as an analytical lens. The empirical data is based on nine meetings, with groups of 3–6 student teachers with an academic degree, at three different periods during their one-year short-track teacher education program. The findings show how student teachers focus on the PCK component instructional strategies in their discussion. A difference between the different sets of meetings is the increased presence of discussions regarding assessment of student learning. The findings also elicit different ways of relating components of PCK in varying contexts. The shift over time from a focus on teachers’ instructional strategies to also including students’ understanding indicates a development toward becoming a teacher. Even though a structured discussion with theoretically grounded didactic questions is established, it is challenging to deepen the discussion when the student teachers’ varying teaching experiences are present at the same time. Nevertheless, the study shows the possibilities of structured group discussions about field experiences in a collegial setting in a short-track teacher education program, regarding student teachers’ development as “becoming teachers.”
Preservice Science Teachers’ Opportunities for Learning Through Reflection When Planning a Microteaching Unit by Matti Karlström & Karim Hamza
Although microteaching is a common approach to engaging preservice teachers in reflection on teaching in on-campus courses, this reflection is usually carried out as a separate part. We examined how preservice middle school science teachers reflected amid planning a 20-min microteaching unit on sustainable development. Six groups of preservice teachers were video recorded and their conversations transcribed. We used practical epistemology analysis to analyze moments of reflection in these conversations. The preservice science teachers recurrently engaged in reflection in the course of their planning, which led to changes in perspective concerning important aspects of how to plan teaching that may be considered central for preservice science teachers to learn during their teacher education. Preservice teachers’ reflection was related to the openness of the task, as they had to make decisions about many different aspects of their teaching. Even aspects that are not on the table in a real-world setting, for instance having the possibility of deciding on the age of the target students, led to productive reflection and opportunities for learning. Our results contribute to increased awareness of the possibilities of microteaching for facilitating learning during planning. This may provide science teacher educators with better possibilities of supporting their preservice science teachers’ reflective practice.
A Practical Approach to Differentiated Instruction: How Biology Teachers Redesigned Their Genetics and Ecology Lessons by Arjan de Graaf, Hanna Westbroek & Fred Janssen
In this study we investigated how a theoretical framework we developed for making differentiated instruction practical worked out in a trajectory (1 year, 5 sessions) that aimed to support 5 secondary biology teachers in designing differentiated instruction practices. The key feature of the framework is the development of cost-effective procedures—heuristics—that aim to support teachers in redesigning their lessons into differentiated instruction (instrumentality) that sufficiently match their work context (congruence), within a limited amount of time and with limited resources (low cost). Our research questions were as follows: Did the heuristic support enable the 5 biology teachers to design differentiated instruction lessons? Did the teachers consider the design and enactment of the lessons practical? To answer our questions we collected the following data: lesson designs and recordings of regular lessons and of redesigned lessons, expected value and perceived advantages and disadvantages to determine how the teachers valued the redesign of their lessons and why, and student responses to a short questionnaire to gain some insight into how they valued the lessons. We found that all 5 teachers were able and willing to apply the heuristics in a way that balanced their goals of controlling the learning processes combined with handing over responsibility to the student. Although it was conducted on a small scale, we contend that our study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what teachers consider to be practical support for changing their teaching practice.
Transformation of Professional Identities From Scientist to Teacher in a Short-Track Science Teacher Education Program by Bengt-Olov Molander & Karim Hamza
The development of professional identity during a short-track teacher education program is studied. This article presents how individuals with a strong background in natural sciences describe the teacher education in which they participate. Individual interviews were conducted with 6 student teachers with a doctorate in natural sciences and extensive work experience in science-related professions on 5 occasions during their teacher education. We suggest that shared ways of talking about education and teaching practice can be described as phases summed up as cautiously positive, rejection, acceptance, and complexity. It is argued that problems of development of professional identities can be understood in relation to the design of the teacher education under study, and failure to acknowledge the development of a professional identity as a science teacher among these student teachers is a question of a not unproblematic transformation of professional identities. Implications for teacher education are that the design of teacher education needs to consider a joint frame for the entire education, in particular the relation between practice and theoretical courses.
Genuine Faculty-Mentored Research Experiences for In-Service Science Teachers: Increases in Science Knowledge, Perception, and Confidence Levels by Christine E. Cutucache, Heather D. Leas, Neal F. Grandgenett, Kari L. Nelson, Steven Rodie, Robert Shuster, Chris Schaben & William E. Tapprich
The overall purpose of this multifocused study was to explore how participation in genuine mentored scientific research experiences impacts in-service science teachers and the knowledge and skills needed for their own science teaching. The research experiences resulted from a partnership between the University of Nebraska at Omaha and the Omaha Public School District. This Teacher-Researcher Partnership Program facilitated opportunities in inquiry, science content, interaction with laboratory instrumentation and technologies, critical discussion of literature, and dissemination of findings for participating in-service science teacher professional development utilizing an inquiry-based theoretical framework wherein we examined science teacher preparation via inquiry-based methods in the research laboratory. A mixed-methods approach with a convergent typology (i.e., qualitative and quantitative analyses conducted separately and integrated) was used to investigate the impact of the program on teachers. Our research question was as follows: How do teachers define and approach scientific research before and after a genuine research experience? We observed 3 emergent nodes or themes by which teachers indicated significant gains: science content knowledge, confidence, and perception. Moreover, we determined that participation by science teachers in a mentored research experience using current scientific technologies and tools improved teacher confidence in science and inquiry as well as an ongoing commitment to provide similar types of experiences to their students. These data support the need for the participation of in-service science teachers in genuine research experiences to boost technological and pedagogical content knowledge, con fidence in process and content, and the perception of translatability to the classroom.
11. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies
Volume 9 Issue 3 - 2020
Lesson study as a vehicle for improving SEND teachers’ teaching skills by Mona Holmqvist
Purpose: Collaborative professional development for inclusive teaching is a limited area of research, although there is an extensive need for special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) teachers. Research findings of how teachers’ professional development can contribute to support the development of powerful learning situations for all students are presented in this special issue. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge of how the use of lesson study can develop teachers’ capabilities to offer high-quality education for students with SEND.
Design/methodology/approach: The guest editor presents each of the papers and introduces key themes and concepts.
Findings: The collection of papers is divided into two themes; the first has a focus on lesson study used by teacher educators during SEND in-service training. In this theme, the teachers are the students who are studying different fields of SEND, supported by teacher educators. The second theme studies different forms of lesson studies carried out by researchers and teachers in the collaboration focused aspects of content that are of importance for students in SEND.
Research limitations/implications: The papers focus on areas of education with a limited research tradition, and as a result, the studies may be seen as starting points for further research. The results so far lack generalisability. Therefore, the researchers have to test the findings further under different conditions and with wider groups of teachers and students.
Practical implications: The results of the papers can be used to develop both SEND teacher education, and collaborative professional development for in-service SEND teachers. This issue will, therefore, be of interest to school and system leaders.
Originality/value: The papers contribute initial findings from an under-researched area and also combine lesson study with methods and designs not previously explored.
Enhancing teachers' relational competence: a teacher lesson study by Linda Plantin Ewe
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute with innovative knowledge about how lesson study as a method can be used as a tool for increasing in-service teachers' professional development. More specifically, the aim is to test in what way one single lesson study cycle, where teachers' way of perceiving teacher–student interactions was tested before and after, contributes to teachers' increased understanding of relational competence. The study is a pilot preparing for an upcoming main study.
Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 19 lead teachers (swe: förstelärare) in a Swedish municipality. The study was based on a relational framework and methodological approach (Aspelin, 2017; Pianta, 1999). Data obtained through web-questionnaires and collaborative group reflections were analysed and compiled to find general patterns.
Findings: The majority of the participants (98.5%) considered their understanding of relational competence to be increased (Cohen's d 1.72) during the intervention. Additionally, there was a notable increase in participants' abilities to verbalise their understanding post-intervention.
Research limitations/implications: The lack of revised studies might have impacted the validity of this work. However, as this was a pilot study the result can be considered to fulfil the purpose.
Practical implications: The research suggests that lesson study as a method for in-service teachers as participating students can be used effectively to increase teachers' professional development.
Originality/value: The study aims to investigate how lesson study as a method can be used to develop in-service teacher learning.
Teachers' capacity to create inclusive learning environments by Emma Leifler
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore effects of an intervention designed for teachers' learning. This study investigates the effectiveness of a three-session professional development (PD) program based on the lesson study methodology. Lesson study was chosen as an intervention, attempting to strengthen teachers' awareness of and readiness to teach for student diversity.
Design/methodology/approach: This study included 26 participants. The teachers took part in lesson study cycles during a period of four months. Effectiveness was measured using a pre-test/post-test within-subject design. The broad concept of inclusion and the characteristics of the research questions in this study demanded a mix of methods, a design in which qualitative and quantitative data are collected in parallel, analyzed separately and then merged.
Findings: Results show an increase of teachers' readiness from baseline to post measurement to adjust the learning environment for increased inclusivity. The largest increase (88%) was seen in the themes in teachers' responses regarding accommodations for a student with special needs. Regarding self-perceived ability, the average increase was 50%. Results show significant changes in teachers' adjustment awareness ability.
Originality/value: This study contributes to educational research, as the focus is PD for general teachers. PD opportunities with teaching strategies related to special needs (e.g. neurodevelopmental conditions, NDCs) are seldom offered to general education teachers. Support from teachers is a key strategy for accommodating students with special needs in mainstream classrooms. Furthermore, there is a lack of literature of interventions aiming to improve teachers' readiness and preparedness for students with NDCs in mainstream settings.
Lesson study for students with intellectual disability by Kamilla Klefbeck
Purpose: This study aim was to analyze how lesson study can enhance learning for students with intellectual disability, and how teachers' collaboration affects the design and analysis of the intervention.
Design/methodology/approach: Lesson study was used as a methodological framework. Ten special educational needs teachers met the researcher for three collaborative meetings. Between meetings, teachers performed and adjusted a lesson on a particular mathematical issue: quantity and size judgment. To evaluate the lesson design, students completed pre- and post-lesson examinations and attitude tests with Likert-type scales.
Findings: Students' knowledge increased during the study. The mean scores for the first group (six students) were 4.3 in the pre-test and 6.5 in the post-test (effect size 0.9). For the second group (four students), the mean score was 3.8 in the pre-test and 4.3 in the post-test (effect size 0.2). Attitude measurement showed split opinions; seven students had a positive experience and three had a predominantly negative experience. Assessment of teacher certainty using transcribed audio recordings of teachers' statements during the collaborative meetings indicated a positive relation between teacher expressions of certainty and student learning. The teacher–researcher collaboration increased teachers' focus on student learning and deepened the researcher's analysis.
Originality/value: There is an urgent need to explore collaborative development in special educational needs teaching. Lesson study is an effective way of examining teachers' collaborative processes using data on teachers' reasoning about teaching and students' learning.
Initializing phase of lesson study: communication a special didactic tool in mathematics by Helena Sjunnesson
Purpose: This study examined participating teachers' expressions about teaching and learning when implementing lesson study (LS) about communication as a special didactic tool in mathematics; it also investigated their experience with LS. The initializing phase was characterized by letting the teachers become familiar with LS as a model for their professional development (PD). It also provided an opportunity for the participants to acquire common understanding of their starting point.
Design/methodology/approach: An adapted version of LS was used as a model for teachers' PD. The methods for data collection were a semi-structured interview and discussions with the teachers. From a teaching team in school year 1, two class teachers participated. The data obtained were qualitative and subjected to a thematic analysis. The teachers participated together in the different discussions during the study. All the discussions were audio-recorded.
Findings: During the discussions, the teachers raised some critical points: how to gain students' attention during lesson reviews; how to make follow-ups of the students' understanding of lesson content; how to plan and factors that could have been changed in education that could assist in all students' progress.
Originality/value: Both the initializing phase and the concept of special didactics have not received full attention in research. This study highlights the importance of capturing the teachers' attained competence toward understanding what is needed for future competence concerning communication as a special didactic tool in mathematics.
Merging lesson study and response to intervention by Camilla Nilvius
Purpose: This article theoretically analyzes how response to intervention (RTI) can be used as a tool in lesson study (LS) to enhance student learning and how RTI can be made more user-friendly by teachers in LS. The focus is on how RTI can be adapted to teachers' daily work by including it in the LS model and how LS can benefit by introducing a scientific approach in analyzing student learning outcomes through RTI. The article also highlights how this approach can contribute to learning for children with special educational needs (SEN).
Design/methodology/approach: This theoretical paper describes and compares the characteristics of the LS model with the RTI framework. The comparison highlights the design of models related to teachers’ development and learning outcomes. The benefits and challenges with the models are described. A previous research study related to the models is also briefly reviewed.
Findings: There are benefits and challenges with both the RTI and LS models but parts of the models appear to complement one another to some extent. Teachers' professional development and a better control of learning outcomes could be gained by combining the models. This could also lead to educational improvement.
Originality/value: There has been almost no research about a combined LS and RTI model.
Lesson Study as a bridge between two learning contexts by Birgitta Lundbäck & Helen Egerhag
Purpose: Lesson Study is a model for advancing knowledge about how teachers can enhance teaching through collaboration in schools. This study aims to focus on two learning situations for students in Grades 1–3: elementary school (the first years of school) and school-age educare (activities for students before and after school while their parents are working or studying). The case study aims to describe how teachers use Lesson Study to enhance students' mathematical learning in the two learning situations. The objectives were to describe teachers' perceptions of Lesson Study activities and collaboration and students' knowledge before and after lessons.
Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected as a narrative case study using audio-recorded conversations between researchers and teachers in the different learning contexts. A questionnaire comprising five open-ended questions was used to map students' knowledge of the subject.
Findings: Teachers found it advantageous to cooperate with each other across the different learning situations. Mapping students' knowledge before and after a teaching session helped them understand how to create a teaching situation that benefits their students. They saw the value of continued collaboration and called for implementation of the Lesson Study method throughout the school.
Research limitations/implications: An important limitation of this case study is that it was conducted in a very specific context, and the findings cannot, therefore, be generalized to other situations. However, there is a need for similar case studies to be conducted in different contexts, both in Sweden and in other countries, to pay attention to ways in which elementary schools and school-age educare can develop supplementary teaching situations.
Originality/value: The originality of this case lies in planning and reporting a Lesson Study in two different learning situations in the same school, and the conclusion that educators identify and develop collaborative links in different subjects.
Volume 8 Issue 4 - 2019
Lesson study with music: a new way to expand the dialogic space of learning and teaching by Hubert Gruber
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that lesson study by including elements from music and music education can sustainably expand and improve the dialogical space for teaching and learning in higher education, especially for primary and secondary teacher education students.
Design/methodology/approach: For the first time under the topic “Lesson Study: Music in Dialogue,” corresponding study programs were prepared at the University College of Teacher Education, Lower Austria. The data material from which answers to research questions can be generated are the “Didactic Design Pattern” and classical research lesson planning, observation and discussion instruments. Moreover, discussion protocols of the reflection meetings offered insights the participants gained through sharing their experience of a series of lesson study cycles including focussed collaboration between mentors, teachers, teacher education students and primary school pupils.
Findings: Within the lesson study groups, the space for cooperation and dialogue widened considerably and the interest in the work and expertise of each other increased. Based on the principles of a “community of practice,” this study shows the positive effects of professional collaboration on primary and secondary teacher education students and a lasting impact on their pupils’ learning. Thereby, the dialogical principle was found to play a central and important role. In connection with music- and art-related processes, previous limitations in teaching and learning with music can be exceeded for pupils, teacher education students and teachers.
Research limitations/implications: This study, therefore, provides new insights into questions of organization and implementation, as well as scientific and didactic support in professional learning communities.
Originality/value: So far, there has been little practitioner research through lesson study in the field of music education. In particular, lesson study enhancing the cooperation between music education and other subject areas through dialogical-integrative work has brought about knowledge and insights of great importance for the further development of an appropriate didactic approach in dialogic music education.
A first time lesson study that turned into a learning study by Simone Klammer & Barbara Hanfstingl
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an implemented lesson study (LS) in English as a second language course for 11-year-old students in the fifth grade. The aim of the research lesson was to learn how to describe a person systematically.
Design/methodology/approach: Two LS cycles in two different classes were conducted and evaluated using systematic observation, case student interviews and student feedback. The data were analysed by the involved teacher team and the mentor.
Findings: The study shows that and how LS and variation theory promotes theory-based lesson preparation and postprocessing as well as team orientation among teachers without LS experience. Second, the lesson data show how elements of variation theory lead to a significant improvement in student learning activity.
Originality/value: This paper provides insights how teachers apply a first time LS and variation theory and how this effects student learning positively.