Sentence

Secara sederhana, sentence (kalimat) dapat diartikan sebagai kumpulan unit-unit gramatikal yang bermakna.

Jenis-jenis Sentence

Berikut ini klasifikasi sentence.

Berdasarkan Predikatnya

Berdasarkan predikatnya, sentence (kalimat) dapat dibagi kedalam nominal sentence dan verbal sentence.

Secara sederhana, nominal sentence merupakan kalimat yang predikatnya adalah bukan dari kelas kata verb (kata kerja). Sebaliknya, verbal sentence - sesuai namanya - merupakan kalimat yang predikatnya adalah berupa verb (kata kerja). Perhatikan contoh berikut:

  • NOMINAL SENTENCE: Cooperative learning is an evidence-based teaching strategy.
  • VERBAL SENTENCE: In cooperative learning, teachers structure students’ interactions and prepare them for cooperation so that students work together in small groups supporting each other’s’ learning processes.

Contoh kalimat diatas dikutip dari abstrak jurnal berjudul "Cooperative learning as an evidence-based teaching strategy: what teachers know, believe, and how they use it"1.

NOTE: Poin ini dibahas secara tersendiri dalam Lesson yang berjudul Nominal & Verbal Sentence

Berdasarkan Unsur Pembentuknya

Berdasarkan unsur pembentuknya, sentence dapat diklasifikasikan kedalam:

  • Minor sentence: kalimat atau ungkapan yang jamak digunakan sehari-hari seperti: Well done!, What a view, etc. (NOTE: minor sentence tidak lazim digunakan dalam jurnal ilmiah).
  • Major sentence: kalimat yang terdiri dari subject dan predicate seperti: We learn, I am reading a journal, etc.

Berdasarkan Klausa Pembentuknya

Berdasarkan klausa pembentuknya, sentence (kalimat) dapat diklasifikasi kedalam:

  • Simple sentence - sesuai istilahnya - merupakan kalimat sederhana yang mengandung independent clause (subjek dan predikat).
  • Complex sentence merupakan kalimat yang mengandung sebuah independent clause (dalam hal ini dikenal dengan istilah main clause) dan setidaknya sebuah dependent clause (dikenal dengan istilah subordinating conjunction).
  • Compound sentence merupakan kalimat yang mengandung dua atau lebih independent clauses yang dihubungkan dengan conjunction (and, but, or, dan sebagainya).
  • Complex-compound sentence merupakan kalimat yang mengandung setidak-tidaknya dua independent clauses dan setidak-tidaknya sebuah dependent clause.

Bagian ini dijabarkan dalam Lesson yang berjudul Clause

Berdasarkan Pola/Penempatan Subject & Predicate-nya

Berdasarkan polanya, sentence dapat dibagi kedalam active sentence/active voice dan passive sentence/passive voice.

Active sentence/active voice merupakan jenis kalimat dengan pola subject diikuti predicate sementara passive sentence/passive voice merupakan pola kalimat dengan subject berada dibelakang predicate dan terkadang juga subject-nya tidak disebutkan/dituliskan (biasanya predikatnya berawalan di- atau ter-).

  • ACTIVE: The students write a paper
  • PASSIVE: The paper is written (by the students)

NOTE: subject dari kedua kalimat diatas adalah the students

Active sentence (kalimat aktif) merupakan jenis kalimat yang subject-nya melakukan predicate. Passive sentence (kalimat pasif) merupakan jenis kalimat yang subject-nya dikenai efek dari predicate. Passive sentence dicirikan dengan formula be yang diikuti oleh past participle. Formula tersebut berlaku untuk setiap tense.

Tense Aspect Active Sentence Passive Sentence
PAST Simple I wrote journal abstract Journal abstract was written (by me)
She wrote journal abstracts Journal abstracts were written (by her)
Progressive / Continuous I was writing journal abstract Journal abstract was being written (by me)
They were reading journal abstract Journal abstracts were being read (by them)
Perfect I had learned English from journal abstracts English had been learned from journal abstracts
She had visited library The library had been visited (by her)
Perfect Continuous I had been waiting her for 1 hour in the canteen She had been being waited (by me) in the canteen
She had been studying English and arabic for 4 years English and Arabic had been being learned for 4 years (by her)
PRESENT Simple They write journal abstract Journal abstract is written (by them)
She writes journal abstracts Journal abstracts were read (by her)
Continuous / Progressive You are writing journal abstract Journal abstract are being written (by you)
He is writing journal abstracts Journal abstracts are being written (by him)
Perfect I have written some journal abstracts Some journal abstracts have been written (by me)
She has learned English from journal abstracts English has been learned through journal abstracts (by her)
Perfect Continuous I have been learning English for 4 years English has been being learned (by me) for 4 years
She has been learning English and Arabic for 4 years too English and Arabic have been being learned for 4 years (by her)
FUTURE Simple I will write journal abstract Journal abstract will be written (by me)
He will read some journal abstracts Some journal abstracts will be read (by him)
Continuous / Progressive He will be writing journal abstract Journal abstract will be being written (by him)
They will be reading journal abstracts Journal abstracts will be being read (by them)
Perfect They will have followed English course through website English course will have been followed (by them)
She will have learned English from website English will have been learned (by her) from website
Perfect Continuous I will have been teaching English for 4 years this March English will have been being taught (by me) for 4 years this March
He will have been learning English and Russian for a semester by the end of this month English and Russian will have been being learned (by him) for a semester by the end of this month

NOTE: Poin ini dibahas secara lebih detail pada Lesson yang berjudul Active & Passive Sentence

Kandungan Sentence

Sentence pada dasarnya merupakan kombinasi dari dua unit tata bahasa - yakni subject dan predicate.

NOTE: Poin ini diulas secara lebih detail pada Lesson berjudul Concord.

Subject

Jamak dijelaskan bahwa subject merupakan pelaku dari predicate. Adapun unit gramatikal yang dapat mengisi posisi subject antara lain:

  • pronoun: kata ganti orang yang meliputi
    • I, we, you (singular), you (plural), he, she, it, they
  • noun
    • abstract noun: idea, feeling, thought
    • concrete noun: lecturer, student
    • common noun: table, chair
    • proper noun: Universitas Negeri Makassar, Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia
  • noun phrase:
    • a student reads journal
    • some students are in the classroom
    • that flying object is still unknown
  • subordinate clause:
    • who you are is not really important
    • why I am here is to learn English
  • infinitive with to: kata kerja dengan to
    • to read journal is my purpose
    • to get through your exam should become your focus
  • dummy subject: subjek yang tidak diketahui
    • it is important to learn English seriously
    • it has started to rain
  • directive: subjek implisit/tersirat (yang tidak disebutkan)
    • do your homework
    • choose 5 journal abstracts and read them all

Predicate

Dalam nominal sentence, predicate (predikat) dapat merujuk kepada keadaan atau status dari subject sementara predicate dalam verbal sentence dapat merujuk kepada sesuatu yang dilakukan atau dikerjakan oleh subject atau merujuk pada sesuatu yang terjadi.

  • Nominal Sentence: They are students
  • Verbal Sentence: They are reading journal abstract
  • with modal verb: You should learn English
  • tense & aspect: predicate yang dipengaruhi oleh waktu terjadinya peristiwa
    • simple past: He wrote a letter
    • past progressive/continuous: He was writing a letter
    • past perfect: He had written a letter
    • past perfect continuous: He has been writing a letter for 3 minutes
    • simple present: He writes a letter
    • present progressive/continuous: He is writing a letter
    • present perfect: He has written a letter
    • present perfect continuous: he has been writing a letter for 3 minutes
    • simple future: He will write a letter
    • future progressive/continuous: He will be writing a letter
    • future perfect: He will had written a letter
    • future perfect continuous: He will have been writing a letter

Tipe Sentence

Berikut ini beberapa tipe dari sentence (kalimat).

Declarative Sentence

Declarative sentence merupakan kalimat yang menyatakan, mendeklarasikan, dan memberikan informasi.

Verbal Sentence Nominal Sentence
PAST They bring their books She was our Arabic lecturer
PRESENT He bring the book I am an English lecturer
FUTURE She take the offer He will be more diligent

Negative Sentence

Maksud dari kata negative dalam negative sentence tidak bermakna sesuatu yang buruk; melainkan bermakna terdapatnya negasi (yang bermakna tidak atau bukan) - yang dalam hal ini diwakili oleh kata "not", "nothing, atau "never". Dengan kata lain, negative sentence merupakan bentuk negasi dari declarative sentence.

Verbal Sentence Nominal Sentence
PAST They did not bring their books She was not our English lecturer
PRESENT He do not bring the book I am not a Math lecturer
FUTURE She will not take the offer He will not be lazy

TIPS: Meskipun sangat jarang dijumpai, namun perlu diingat bahwa kalimat double negative (negasi ganda) adalah kalimat/pernyataan yang bermakna positive. Misalnya "I didn't do nothing" atau "I did not do nothing" yang mengandung negasi didn't atau did not dan negasi nothing (negasi ganda). Kalimat tersebut bersinonim dengan "I do something".

  • I didn't do nothing = I do something
  • I don't need nothing = I need something
  • She doesn't read nothing = She reads something

Didalam bahasa Indonesia, double negative dapat dilihat pada pernyataan "bukan tidak mungkin" yang berarti "mungkin" dan pernyataan "

Interrogative Sentence

Interrogative sentence secara harfiah berarti kalimat tanya. Sesuai namanya, kalimat ini digunakan untuk bertanya. Dalam hal ini, terdapat beberapa jenis kalimat tanya yang umum digunakan.

Question Words

Question words merujuk pada "5W1H" - what, when, where, why, who dan how. Untuk penggunaannya, kata tanya "5W1H" digunakan pada awal kalimat dan diikuti inversi predicate dengan subject lalu diakhiri dengan dengan kata tanya ("?").

Inversi dalam tata bahasa Inggris merujuk kepada pola kalimat yang membalik/menukar penempatan subject dengan predicate.

Dalam melakukan inversi yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan "5W1H" dalam kalimat tanya (interrogative sentence), jenis kalimat nominal menempatkan be verb setelah kata tanya "5W1H" sementara dalam kalimat verbal (verbal sentence), dibutuhkan kata kerja bantu (do/does) untuk diletakkan setelah kata tanya "5W1H". Perhatikan contoh berikut.

  • Nominal Sentence: What is your name?
  • Verbal Sentence: What do you read?

Pada contoh diatas, kalimat tanya berjenis nominal sentence "what is your name?" menginversi (menukar/membalik) posisi "your name* dengan "is" (sesuai dengan be verb "your name" yang merupakan noun phrase berjenis singular).

Pada contoh kalimat selanjutnya, kalimat tanya berjenis verbal sentence "what do you read?" menginversi (menukar/membalik) posisi predicate "read" dengan subject "you". Dalam hal ini, digunakan kata kerja bantu "do" karena (1) konteks waktunya present; dan (2) subject-nya berupa second person.

Tense Aspect Active Passive
PAST Simple What did you read? What was it?
What did she read? What were they?
Continuous/Progressive What were you reading? -
What was she reading? -
Perfect What had you learned? -
What had she learned? -
Perfect Continuous What had you been learning? -
What had she been learning? -
PRESENT Simple What do you read? What is it?
What does she read? What are they?
Continuous/Progressive What are you reading? -
What is she reading? -
Perfect What have you learned? -
What has she learned? -
Perfect Continuous What have you been learning? -
What has she been learning? -
FUTURE Simple What will you read? What will it be?
What will she read? What will they be?
Continuous/Progressive What will you be reading? -
What will she be reading? -
Perfect What will have you learned? -
What will has she learned? -
Perfect Continuous What will have you been learning? -
What will have she been learning? -

Yes-No Question

Jenis pertanyaan ini merupakan pertanyaan sederhana yang membutuhkan jawaban "ya" (yes) atau "tidak" (no) dengan menyebutkan kata kerja bantu sesuai dengan konteks waktu (tense) yang digunakan.

Verbal Sentence Nominal Sentence
PAST Question Did you read the latest journal abstract? Was your friend in the classroom?
Answer + Yes, I did Yes, he/she was
Answer - No, I did not (didn't) No, he/she was not (wasn't)
PRESENT Question Do you read the latest journal abstract? Are your friends in the classroom?
Answer + Yes, I do Yes, they are
Answer - No, do not (don't) No, they are not (aren't)
FUTURE Question Will you read the latest journal abstract? Will your friends be here?
Answer + Yes, I will Yes, they will
Answer - No, I will not (won't) No, they will not (won't)

Pada contoh kalimat verbal diatas, kata bantu (did/do/does) selalu disandingkan dengan verb sementara pada contoh kalimat nominal digunakan "be verb" (was/were/am/are/is) - tergantung konteks waktu dan subject-nya.


  1. Cooperative learning as an evidence-based teaching strategy: what teachers know, believe, and how they use it by Anna Abramczyk & Susanne Jurkowski ↩︎