Pronoun

Pada Lesson kali ini akan dibahas tentang parts of speech yang fokus kepada pembahasan tentang pronoun.

Personal Pronoun

Personal pronoun digunakan untuk menggantikan orang dan/atau benda. Penggunaannya tergantung pada kombinasi dari 4 poin berikut:

  • Person: first person (orang pertama), second person (orang kedua) atau third person (orang ketiga)
  • Number: tunggal (singular) atau jamak (plural);
  • Gender: pria (male - M), wanita (female - F) atau netral (neuter/neutral - N); dan
  • Case: subjective (sebagai subjek), objective (sebagai objek) atau possessive (menyatakan kepemilikan)
Person Subjective Pronoun Objective Pronoun Possessive Determiner Possessive pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
Singular
1st I me my mine myself
2nd you you your yours yourself
3rd (M) he him his his himself
3rd (F) she her her hers herself
3rd (N) it it its - itself
Plural
1st we us our ours ourselves
2nd you you your yours yourselves
3rd they them their theirs themselves

Nina told me that Nina has submitted Nina's journal and the journal written by Nina has been accepted.

Kalimat diatas menjadi aneh karena terlalu banyak Nina yang disebutkan/dituliskan. Dengan penggunaan pronoun, kalimat tersebut dapat dengan mudah dipahami namun tetap bermakna.

Nina told me that she has submitted her journal and the journal written by her has been accepted.

Pada contoh diatas, she berfungsi untuk menggantikan atau merujuk pada Nina sebagai subjek, her yang pertama merupakan possessive determiner yang merujuk pada kepemilikan Nina dengan menyebut apa yang Nina miliki (dalam hal ini "journal") sementara her yang kedua merupakan objective pronoun yang menunjukkan Nina sebagai objek kalimat.

Nina told me that she has submitted her journal and hers has been accepted.

Pada contoh diatas, she merujuk kepada Nina sebagai subjek, her merupakan subjective determiner yang merujuk kepada kepemilikan Nina dengan menyebut apa yang Nina miliki (dalam hal ini "journal") sementara hers merujuk kepada kepemilikan Nina tanpa menyebut apa yang Nina miliki karena pembaca/pendengar dianggap telah mengetahuinya (possessive pronoun.

Note: Perubahan bentuk pronoun - misal: Andi ke he dan ke him serta Nina ke she dan ke her - dikenal dengan istilah inflection.

Subjective Pronoun

Sesuai istilahnya, subjective pronoun digunakan pada posisi subjek kalimat. Berikut beberapa contohnya.

  1. We conclude that preservice teacher education should provide unique experiences that foster creativity.
  2. In other cases, they collected, curated, synthesized, and applied ideas based on inspirations, showing dispositions of New Literacies Theory.

Pada contoh 1 diatas, secara tersirat (implisit) diketahui bahwa subjective pronoun "We" merujuk pada penulis jurnal atau peneliti. Pada contoh kedua, subjective pronoun "they" diketahui merupakan orang-orang yang mengumpulkan, mengelola, melakukan sintesis dan mengaplikasikan (collecting, curating, synthesizing and applying) ide-ide.

Objective Pronoun

Sesuai istilahnya, objective pronoun digunakan jika pronoun berposisi sebagai objek. Berikut beberapa contohnya.

  • I could no longer remain healthy in an environment profoundly unhealthy for me. (me = I).
  • Internet resources abound for preservice teacher (PST) use today, but we do not know how they choose and describe their implementation of them. (them = internet resources).

CATATAN: Untuk penggunaan dua (atau lebih) personal pronoun, pastikan Anda memilih kategori yang tepat - misalnya you and I, Nina and I dan Nina, Santi and I digunakan ketika personal pronoun tersebut berfungsi sebagai subjek (subjective pronoun) [misalnya dalam "You and I learn English"]. Jika pronoun tersebut berposisi sebagai objek (objective pronoun), maka gunakan you and me, Nina and me dan Nina, Santi and me [misalnya dalam: "Andi invited you and me" to his graduation party].

Possessive Determiner

Possesive determiner digunakan untuk menyatakan kepemikilan. Dalam penggunaannya, possessive determiner diikuti dengan benda/sesuatu yang dimiliki. Dengan kata lain, benda atau sesuatu yang dimiliki harus disertakan. Selain itu, penggunaan possessive determiner harus sesuai dengan subject atau dengan subjective pronoun yang digunakan.

Example Comment
This study examined 69 Chinese preschool teachers’ use of feedback strategies in their math lessons. their math lessons => math lessons milik 69 Chinese preschool teachers
This autobiographical narrative inquiry uses an ascribed, stock Chinese metaphor to make sense of my career trajectory. my career trajectory => career trajectory (milik) penulis (author)
My thinking with the metaphor reaches back to my childhood, follows how various metaphorical images surfaced longitudinally in my research program, and characterizes the increasing incommensurability between my local work landscape and my growing international reputation. my thinking => pemikiran penulis (author); dst.
What in your work situation are you most satisfied with? your work situation => work situation seseorang yang menjadi partne bicara penulis.
Describe your approach to students. your approach => approach seseorang yang menjadi partner bicara penulis.

Possessive Pronoun

Layaknya possessive determiner, possessive pronoun juga digunakan untuk merujuk kepada atau untuk menunjukkan kepemilikan atas sesuatu. Bedanya, penggunaan possessive pronoun tidak menyertakan sesuatu yang dimiliki karena pembaca/pendengar dianggap telah mengetahui benda yang dimaksud.

Possessive Determiner Possessive Pronoun
This is my book This is mine
Is this you book? Is this yours?
This is our book This is ours
Is their book Is this theirs?
This is her book This is hers
This is his book This is his
This study examined 69 Chinese preschool teachers’ use of feedback strategies in their math lessons. their math lessons => theirs
This autobiographical narrative inquiry uses an ascribed, stock Chinese metaphor to make sense of my career trajectory. my career trajectory => mine
My thinking with the metaphor reaches back to my childhood, follows how various metaphorical images surfaced longitudinally in my research program, and characterizes the increasing incommensurability between my local work landscape and my growing international reputation. my thinking => mine; dst.
What in your work situation are you most satisfied with? your work situation => yours
Describe your approach to students. your approach => yours

Reflexive Pronoun

Reflexive pronoun digunakan ketika subjek kalimat menerima aksi atau efek dari predikat - subjek kalimat sekaligus merupakan objek dari predikat/kata kerja yang sama.

  1. It illuminates how I freed myself of one institution’s challenges, while making peace with, and becoming part of, a more hospitable university environment.
  2. They classified themselves as non-native speakers, stating that they would never be close to native speakers due to innate factors such as nationality or race.
  3. This paper addresses the latter, reporting on research into FBV with secondary school teachers who already see themselves as values educators.
Contoh Reflexive Pronoun Rujukan
1. myself I
2. themselves they
3. themselves secondary school teachers (they)

Reflexive Pronoun vs Objective Pronoun

Reflexive pronoun merujuk kembali kepada pronoun atau noun sebelum predicate kalimat. Dengan kata lain, pronoun atau noun dan yang dirujuk oleh reflexive pronoun haruslah sosok yang sama.

Example Comment
Reflexive Pronoun He judges himself good He dan himself adalah sosok yang sama
Objective Pronoun He gave him a book He dan him adalah dua sosok berbeda

Interrogative Pronoun

Interrogative pronoun merupakan kata tanya (5W1H) yang menjadi subjek kalimat. Berikut beberapa contohnya.

  • What is your name?
  • Whose is this book?

Compound Interrogative Pronoun

Compound interrogative pronoun adalah:

  • whatever ⮕ You can take whatever you want
  • whichever ⮕ Whichever student raises hand first will get opportunity
  • whenever ⮕ Whenever you are ready, call me
  • wherever ⮕ I will go wherever you go
  • whoever ⮕ Whoever you find there must be my friend

Expletive Pronoun

Expletive pronoun - terkadang disebut dengan dummy pronoun - merujuk pada kata ganti yang tidak ada referensi/rujukanya secara gramatikal namun tersirat (implicit). Terdapat dua expletive pronouns yang umum digunakan - there dan it.

  1. There is a journal article on the table
  2. It looks like it may rain this night
  3. What time is it now?

Kata yang dicetak tebal-miring pada kedua contoh diatas merupakan contoh penggunaan expletive pronoun didalam kalimat. Keduanya tidak merujuk kepada orang/benda yang jelas.

Expletive pronoun it berbeda dengan subjective pronoun it. Subjective pronoun it merujuk pada benda/sesuatu yang jelas (rujukannya) sementara expletive pronoun it tidak demikian - seperti pada contoh 2 dan 3.

Intensive Pronoun (Pronoun's Antecedent)

Intensive pronoun pada dasarnya sama dengan reflexive pronoun - myself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves, themselves, himself, herself dan himself. Bedanya, jika reflexive pronoun memiliki fungsi sebagai grammatical function (fungsi gramatikal - subjek atau objek), tidak demikian dengan intensive pronoun.

  1. We did our homework ourselves
  2. She wrote her journal herself
  3. I freed myself
  4. They classified themselves
  5. Teachers see themselves

Cara Membedakan Reflexive Pronoun dengan Intensive Pronoun

Contoh Comment
REFLEXIVE PRONOUN : I freed myself myself adalah objek yang merujuk kembali ke subject I
They classified themselves themselves adalah objek yang merujuk kembali ke subject they
INTENSIVE PRONOUN : We did our homework ourselves objek kalimat adalah our homework - bukan ourselves
She wrote her journal herself objek kalimat adalah journal - bukan herself

Untuk lebih jelasnya, tanyakan pertanyaan apa? atau siapa? - Jika jawabannya adalah objek kalimat yang merujuk kembali kepada subjek kalimat, maka itu adalah reflekxive pronoun.

Contoh Apa?/Siapa? Jawaban Rujukan Jenis Pronoun
I freed myself Apa/siapa yang dibebaskan (freed)? myself I reflexive
They classified themselves Apa/siapa yang diklasifikasikan (classified)? themselves they reflexive
We did our homework ourselves Apa/siapa yang dilakukan (did)? homework - intensive
She wrote her journal herself Apa/siapa yang ditulis (wrote)? journal - intensive

Indefinite Pronoun

Indefinite pronoun merujuk kepada orang/benda yang tidak pasti.

Orang Someone This figure is an example of a public post by someone looking for resources on the Internet.
Benda Something Searching online is the collecting; curating is the selecting; and synthesis and adaptation is the creation of something new for classroom application
Anybody I go to the next student with the next question and ask if anybody has a different opinion.
Now, if it was something we were looking at later in the year and we’d done a few of these document analyses,
Tempat Somewhere I will go to somewhere
Waktu someday Someday, I will be a lecturer.
I will be a lecturer someday.