Making & Formulating Questions

Pada lesson kali ini, anda akan mempelajari teknik membuat dan memformulasikan pertanyaan dalam bahasa Inggris.

Berikut ini Lesson yang terkait dengan topik ini:

Kalimat Tanya berdasarkan Jenis Kalimat (Nominal VS Verbal)

Pada kalimat nominal, kalimat tanya mengaplikasikan inversi (predikat dipindahkan kedepan) sementara dalam kalimat verbal, digunakan kata kerja bantu. Pada contoh berikut, kata yang dicetak tebal merupakan pronoun sementara kata yang dicetak tebal miring adalah predikat.

Jenis Kalimat Pernyataan Pertanyaan
NOMINAL I am a student Am I a student?
The main purpose of the present study was to illuminate the factors that enhance or inhibit job satisfaction among second-career teachers (SCTs) in their initial period at school. Was the main purpose of the present study to illuminate the factors that enhance or inhibit job satisfaction among second-career teachers (SCTs) in their initial period at school?
VERBAL She learns English in the library Does she learn English in the library?
This paper reports on a study of teacher educators preparing teachers for the Further Education and Skills sector in England. Do this paper report on a study of teacher educators preparing teachers for the Further Education and Skills sector in England?

Kalimat Tanya berdasarkan Tense & Aspect

Kalimat tanya - baik berjenis nominal maupun verbal - juga dapat tergantung dari tense & aspect yang digunakan. Dalam pembuatannya, "be" atau kata kerja bantu diinversi (diletakkan didepan) sesuai dengan tense & aspect-nya.

Agar lebih mudah memahami poin ini, Anda disarankan untuk membaca Lesson yang berjudul "Tense & Aspect".

PAST PRESENT FUTURE
SIMPLE (Nominal) You were there ⮕ Were you there? He is here ⮕ Is he there? She will be there ⮕ Will she be there?
SIMPLE (Verbal) He learned English ⮕ Did he learn English? She learns English ⮕ Does she learn English? They will learn English ⮕ Will they learn English?
CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE (Verbal) I was sleeping ⮕ Was I sleeping? I am reading a book ⮕ Am I reading a book? I will read journal ⮕ Will I read yournal?
PERFECT She had eaten lunch ⮕ Had she eaten lunch? She has eaten lunch ⮕ Has she eaten lunch? She will have eaten lunch ⮕ Will she have eaten lunch?
PERFECT CONTINUOUS I had been waiting you for 2 hours ⮕ Had I been waiting you for 2 hours? I have been waiting you for 2 hours ⮕ Have I been waiting you for 2 hours? I will have been studying English for 6 years ⮕ Will I have been studying English for 6 years?

"Be" & Kata bantu

  • was: Digunakan dalam konteks waktu past (lampau) untuk subjek "I", "He", "She", "It" dan "noun"/"noun phrase" lainnya yang serupa dengan salah satu dari subjective pronoun tersebut (misal: Andi yang sinonim dengan he).
  • were: Digunakan dalam konteks waktu past (lampau) untuk subjek "You", "We", "They" dan "noun"/"noun phrase" lainnya yang serupa dengan salah satu dari subjective pronoun tersebut (misal: Andi dan Nina yang sinonim dengan we/they).
  • am: Digunakan dalam konteks waktu present (sekarang) hanya untuk subjek "I".
  • are: Digunakan dalam konteks waktu present (sekarang) untuk subjek "You", "We", "They" dan "noun"/"noun phrase" lainnya yang serupa dengan salah satu dari subjective pronoun tersebut (misal: The lecturers yang sinonim dengan we/they).
  • is: Digunakan dalam konteks waktu waktu present (sekarang) untuk subjek "He", She", "It" dan "noun"/"noun phrase" lainnya yang serupa dengan salah satu dari subjective pronoun tersebut (misal: A student yang sinonim dengan he/she).
  • will: Digunakan dalam konteks waktu future (akan datang) untuk semua subjective pronoun, "noun" & "noun phrase.
  • did: Digunakan sebagai kata kerja bantu dalam konteks waktu lampau (past) untuk semua subjek. (Contoh: did you see our English lecturer yesterday?).
  • do: Digunakan sebagai kata kerja bantu dalam konteks waktu sekarang (present) untuk subjek first person dan second person. (Contoh: do you see our English lecturer?).
  • does: Digunakan sebagai kata kerja bantu dalam konteks waktu sekarang (present) untuk subjek third person berjenis singular. (Contoh: does he see our English lecturer?).

Jenis-jenis Kalimat Tanya

Berikut ini beberapa jenis kalimat tanya.

WH Question

WH question merujuk kepada penggunaan kata tanya (what, who, when, where, why & how).

Nominal Verbal
What is it? What do you say?
Who are they? Where does she live?
Where are you? Where did you learn?

NOTE: Penggunaan "be" [was/were dan am/are/is"] serta "kata bantu" [did/do/does] disesuaikan dengan subject (dapat berupa pronoun, noun, atau noun phrase) dan tense-nya.

Yes-No Question

Yes-no question merujuk kepada kalimat tanya yang pilihan jawabannya adalah antara "yes" atau "no".

Nominal Yes No
Is it yours? Yes, it is No, it is not (isn't)
Did they read the book? Yes, they did No, they did not (don't)
Do they read the book? Yes, they do No, they do not (don't)
Does she read the book? Yes, she does No, she does not (doen't)
Will they read the book? Yes, they did No, they did not (don't)

Literal Question

Pertanyaan literal (literal question) merupakan pertanyaan yang jawabannya terdapat didalam teks. Berikut contoh literal question.

Novice and expert teachers’ situation-specific skills regarding classroom management: What do they perceive, interpret and suggest? by Rebekka Stahnke & Sigrid Blomeke

The study investigates 39 novice and expert teachers’ perception, interpretation and decision-making skills with respect to classroom management events which they observed in two video clips. Their retrospective comments were analyzed with a multi-category coding scheme. Experts interpreted more and suggested more alternative courses of action than novices. They also focused more on student learning and the context of instruction. Concerning the relation of skills and focus, experts perceived and interpreted more than novices when talking about students while making more suggestions when addressing the teacher or the context. Experts spoke more often about preventive classroom manage- ment. Conclusions for developing expertise are drawn.

  • What does this study investigate?
    • This study investigates 39 novice and expert teachers' perception, interpretation and decision-making skills with respect to classroom management events which they observed in two video clips.

Inferential Question

Inferential question merupakan jenis pertanyaan yang jawabannya tersirat didalam teks. Dengan kata lain, jawaban dari pertanyaan inferensial tidak tertera secara tertulis melainkan hanya berupa clue (tanda-tanda) saja. Berikut contohnya.

Using Video to Highlight Curriculum-Embedded Opportunities for Student Discourse by Abby Reisman and Lisette Enumah

History classrooms remain stubbornly resistant to instructional change. We explored whether using classroom video to help teachers identify curriculum-embedded opportunities for student discourse improved their understanding and facilitation of document-based historical discussions. We observed a relationship between teachers’ capacity to notice curriculum- embedded opportunities for student discourse in classroom videos and their growth in enacting document-based history discussions. For three of four teachers, the intervention appeared to improve both their analysis of document-based discussion facilitation and their enactment of the practice. Teachers’ incoming proficiency and familiarity with document-based history instruction appeared to inform their experience throughout the intervention. We discuss implications for practice and future research on professional development for history teachers.

  • What research design did the researchers probably apply? Why?
    • Experimental study. The researchers literally stated that intervention improves both participants' analysis of discussion facilitation and enactment of practice. Intervention only exists in quantitative study.