Conjunction

Pada Lesson kali ini akan dibahas tentang parts of speech yang fokus kepada pembahasan tentang conjunction.

Definisi dan Fungsi Conjunction

Conjunction secara literal berarti kata hubung yang digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kata, frasa (phrase) dan klausa (cluse).

Example Comment Mark
1. The students learn English seriously and happily Conjunction "and" menghubungkan adverb dengan adverb
I am sleepy but I have to work Conjunction "but" menyatakan negasi antara pernyataan sebelum dan sesudahnya
2. The students learn English seriously and happy Conjunction "and" menghubungkan adverb dengan adjective
I am sleepy but I am hungry Conjunction "but" tidak menyatakan negasi antara pernyataan sebelum dan sesudahnya - tidak bermakna

Jenis Conjunction

Conjunction dapat diklasifikasi kedalam dua jenis. Berikut ini adalah jenis-jenis conjunction.

Coordinating Conjunction

Coordinating Conjunction Example Comment
and Content and discourse analysis of interviews with two elementary teachers revealed how they perceived features of their professional contexts as supports or constraints on their agency to create student-centered instruction as they planned from mathematics curriculum resources. Digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua kata yang setara
but This study examines the identities of Korean English teachers who have lived in various English-speaking countries but now serve as certified public school teachers in Korea. digunakan untuk menyatakan negasi
or They classified themselves as non-native speakers, stating that they would never be close to native speakers due to innate factors such as nationality or race. Digunakan untuk menyatakan alternatif
both ... and ... For three of four teachers, the intervention appeared to improve both their analysis of document-based discussion facilitation and their enactment of the practice.
either ... or ... When I received a major international research award in 2015, my career reached a crossroads where I knew I either would have to quit the profession or find employment elsewhere. Digunakan untuk menunjukkan satu diantara dua pilihan
yet First, we know of no other practice- or video-based professional development that focuses teachers’ attention on curriculum-embedded opportunities for instructional routines. Yet, as Hiebert and Morris (2012b) argue, “learning to teach particular content from a particular curriculum to a par- ticular group of students and, gradually, extracting the core practices of teaching” increases the probability of transfer (p. 2). Digunakan untuk menyatakan sanggahan
Research suggests that lesson planning is a complex process (Fernandez & Cannon, 2005) that reflects teachers’ individual styles and thoughts about how concepts should be taught (Ding & Carlson, 2013; Stein, Remillard, & Smith, 2007). Yet, in a survey of 174 elementary school teachers, Oguz and Bayindir (2009) found that more than half of the teachers in the study admitted to not preparing plans for every day.
neither ... nor ... To evaluate the effectiveness of this approach alone, neither the on-site supervision nor the group workshops included any explicit preparation in creativity. Digunakan untuk menyatakan tidak satupun diantara kedua pilihan

Subordinating Conjunction

Subordinating conjunction digunakan untuk menghubungkan subordinate clause atau dependent clause dengan main clause. Berikut ini conjunction yang termasuk dalam subordinating conjunction.

after although as as if as long as as much as as soon as
as though because before by the time even if even though if
in order that in case in the event that lest now that once only
only if provided that since so supposing that than
though till unless until when whenever where
whereas wherever whether or not while

Kebanyakan subordinating conjunction adalah adverbial clause.

Berikut ini beberapa contoh yang dikutip dari abstrak jurnal.

  • Adverbial clause of time ⮕ after, before, since, when, whenever, while, until, as soon as
    • After reviewing literature in English and in German, this article examines teachers’ beliefs about the aims of citizenship education in Austria and Switzerland using the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study.
  • Adverbial clause of place ⮕ where, wherever, everywhere
    • The analytical framework was developed in the context of an across the curriculum approach to numeracy in the Australian Curriculum where all teachers are expected to explicitly attend to numeracy in the subjects they teach.
  • Adverbial clause of result ⮕ so that
    • In cooperative learning, teachers structure students’ interactions and prepare them for cooperation so that students work together in small groups supporting each other’s’ learning processes.
  • Adverbial clause of condition ⮕ unless, if, provided (that), providing, as long as
    • We conclude that, if organized properly, Lesson Study has enormous potential to facilitate changes of teachers’ educational beliefs: from direct transmission beliefs toward constructivist beliefs, from restricted professionals’ beliefs toward reflective practitioner beliefs and attitudes, toward beliefs in the power of student’s voice, and collaboration.
  • Adverbial clause of concession ⮕ although, though, even though, whereas, while, whilst
    • Although teachers were well informed about the principles of cooperative learning, they only knew a few methods to implement cooperative learning in class.
  • Adverbial clause of reason ⮕ because, since, as, in case
    • Despite being rated as near-native, the teachers with transnational experience still undervalued their English proficiency, possibly because they compared their proficiency to that of native speakers.

Correlative Conjunction

Correlative conjunction merupakan kata hubung yang berpasangan; antara lain:

  • both ....... and ....... => keduanya
  • either ....... or ....... => salah satu diantara dua
  • neither ....... nor ....... => tidak kedua-duanya
  • whether ....... or ....... => salah satu dari dua
  • not only ....... but also ....... => tidak hanya ..... tapi/melainkan juga .....

Berikut ini penggunaan correlative conjuction.

Both Andi and Nina are university students Keduanya - Andi dan Nina - adalah mahasiswa
She should read either book or journal Dia harus membaca buku atau jurnal; salah satu
They want to read neither book nor journal Mereka tidak ingin membaca buku dan jurnal; tidak kedua-duanya
I didn't know wheter your want to read book or journal Saya tidak tahu apakah Anda ingin membaca buku atau membaca jurnal