Adverb

Adverb merupakan kelas kata yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan lebih detail tentang verb (kata kerja), adjective (kata sifat) dan adverb lainnya.

Jenis-jenis Adverb

Adverb memiliki beberapa jenis. Berikut jenis-jenis adverb.

Adverb of Manner

Adverb of manner (keterangan cara) menerangkan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan.

  • He teaches English effectively

Pada contoh diatas, adverb "effectively" menerangkan bagaimana dia (dalam hal ini "he") mengajar ("teach"). Jadi, yang efektif dalam hal ini bukanlah orangnya ("he") melainkan cara mengajarnya (verb).

Berikut ini contoh penggunaan adverb of manner yang didapatkan dari abstrak jurnal.

  • History classrooms remain stubbornly resistant to instructional change1.
  • In some cases, these PSTs simply followed lesson plans given to them. In other cases, they collected, curated, synthesized, and applied ideas based on inspirations, showing dispositions of New Literacies Theory. This study provides evidence that teacher educators need to engage PSTs in intentionally developing the skills of curation by acknowledging and modeling the depth and breadth of resources, including those that are not necessarily sanctioned. Implications include ways that teacher educators can frame PSTs’ understandings as they critically consume online resources through Critical Curation Theory2.

Adverb of Time

Adverb of time (keterangan waktu) menerangkan kapan sebuah peristiwa atau kapan sesuatu dilakukan. Sesuai dengan istilahnya, adverb of time menunjukkan waktu terjadinya peristiwa.

  • He taught English yesterday
  • He teaches English today
  • He will teach English tomorrow

Berikut ini conth adverb of time yang dikutip dari abstrak jurnal.

  • Internet resources abound for preservice teacher (PST) use today, but we do not know how they choose and describe their implementation of them2.

Adverb of Place

Adverb of place (keterangan tempat) menerangkan dimana sebuah peristiwa terjadi. Sesuai dengan istilahnya, adverb of place menunjukkan tempat terjadinya peristiwa.

  • He taught English overseas
  • He teaches English outside (the classroom)

Adverb of Frequency & Adverb of Degree

Adverb of frequency (keterangan frekuensi) menunjukkan derajat intensitas (frekuensi) sesuatu dilakukan.

  • He teaches English everyday
  • He always reads journal abstract
  • He never plays online game

Berikut ini contoh adverb of frequency yang dikutip dari abstrak jurnal.

  • They classified themselves as non-native speakers, stating that they would never be close to native speakers due to innate factors such as nationality or race3.

Hampir mirip dengan adverb of frequency, adverb of degree juga digunakan untuk menunjukkan intensitas sesuatu dilakukan.

  • When he was a student, he learned very hard

Berikut ini contoh penggunaan adverb of frequency yang didapatkan dari abstrak jurnal.

  • However, the contributions of those changes to quality assurance and improvement were not very evident at either the institutional or systemic levels[^ShuiyunLiu].
  • It will be important to conduct more research into the use of LS in mainstream schools, as this study is one of very few exploring LS in this special context4.

Adverbial berdasarkan Posisinya

Adverb dapat diklasifikasi berdasarkan posisinya didalam susunan kata. Dalam hal ini, dikenal istilah adjunct, disjunct, subjunct dan conjunct.

Adjunct

Dalam posisinya sebagai adjunct, adverb terinterasi didalam klausa (susunan kata).

  • She is very smart.
  • She went to campus immediately once she heard that the lecturer was on his way to campus.

Dalam kedua contoh diatas, adverb very dan immediately berada pada posisi dimana adverb lazimnya ditempatkan.

Disjunct

Dalam posisinya sebagai disjunct, adverb menempati atau ditempatkan diluar dari klausa yang diterangkan.

  • In my opinion, we need to consider his suggestion.
  • Immediately, she went to campus once she heard that the lecturer was on his way to campus.

Subjunct

Dalam posisinya sebagai subjunct, adverb menempati atau ditempatkan sebelum verb yang disifatinya.

  • She immediately went to campus once she heard that the lecturer was on his way to campus.

Conjunct

Dalam posisinya sebagai conjunct, adverb juga menempati atau ditempatkan diluar dari struktur klausa. Fungsinya adalah untuk menghubungkan ide-ide yang saling terikat.

  • She learn English everyday. So she gets an A.
  • She heard that the lecturer was on his way to campus. Therefore, she went to campus immediately.

Didalam contoh kalimat pertama diatas, adverb "so" menghubungkan ide "she learn English everyday" dengan "she gets an A". Demikian halnya dengan contoh kedua dimana adverb therefore menghubungkan ide "she heard that the lecturer was on his way to campus" dengan "she went to campus immediately".


  1. Using Video to Highlight Curriculum-Embedded Opportunities for Student Discourse by Abby Reisman & Lisette Enumah ↩︎

  2. Developing Teachers as Critical Curators: Investigating Elementary Preservice Teachers’ Inspirations for Lesson Planning by Amanda G. Sawyer, Katie Dredger, Joy Myers, Susan Barnes, Reece Wilson, Jesse Sullivan & Daniel Sawyer ↩︎ ↩︎

  3. “I may sound like a native speaker…but I’m not”: identities of Korean English teachers with border-crossing experience by Mun Woo Lee & Sung Yeon Kim ↩︎

  4. Is there anything special about lesson study in special schools? by Sarah Seleznyov, Amelia Roberts, Rachel Walker, Sarah Watson & Melanie Hogan ↩︎