Active & Passive Voice

Pada Lesson kali ini akan dibahas tentang parts of speech yang fokus kepada pembahasan tentang active & passve sentence/active & passive voice.

Untuk memahami materi tentang active voice, Anda perlu menguasai materi penunjang berikut:

Active Sentence / Active Voice

Secara sederhana, active sentence/voice (kalimat aktif) merupakan kalimat yang subjeknya melakukan predikat.

  • She learns English at home

Pada contoh kalimat sederhana diatas, subjek "she" melakukan predikat "learns".

Didalam bahasa Indonesia, predikat dari kalimat aktif biasanya berupa kata kerja dasar atau berawalan "me-"; misalnya "belajar" atau "mempelajari".

Berikut contoh-contoh kalimat aktif (active sentence/voice) dalam kaitannya dengan pronoun, noun dan tense & aspect. Perhatikan perubahan predikat yang diakibatkan oleh subjek (pronoun/noun) dan tense & aspect.

Active Sentence in Past Tense

  • SIMPLE
    • I wrote a letter
    • I learned English
    • I read journal abstract
    • She wrote a letter
    • She learned English
    • She read journal abstract
    • They wrote a letter
    • They learned English
    • They read journal abstract
  • CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE
    • I was writing a letter
    • I was learning English
    • I was reading journal abstract
    • She was writing a letter
    • She was learning English
    • She was reading journal abstract
    • They were writing a letter
    • They were learning English
    • They were reading journal abstract
  • PERFECT
    • I had written a letter
    • I had learned English
    • I had read journal abstract
    • She had written a letter
    • She had learned English
    • She had read journal abstract
    • They had written a letter
    • They had learned English
    • They had read journal abstract
  • PERFECT CONTINUOUS
    • I had been writing a letter
    • I had been learning English
    • I had been reading journal abstract
    • She had been writing a letter
    • She had been learning English
    • She had been reading journal abstract
    • They had been writing a letter
    • They had been learning English
    • They had been reading journal abstract

Active Sentence in Present Tense

  • SIMPLE
    • I write a letter
    • I learn English
    • I read journal abstract
    • She writes a letter
    • She learns English
    • She reads journal abstract
    • They write a letter
    • They learn English
    • They read journal abstract
  • CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE
    • I am writing a letter
    • I am learning English
    • I am reading journal abstract
    • She is writing a letter
    • She is learning English
    • She is reading journal abstract
    • They are writing a letter
    • They are learning English
    • They are reading journal abstract
  • PERFECT
    • I have written a letter
    • I have learned English
    • I have read journal abstract
    • She has written a letter
    • She has learned English
    • She has read journal abstract
    • They have written a letter
    • They have learned English
    • They have read journal abstract
  • PERFECT CONTINUOUS
    • I have been writing a letter
    • I have been learning English
    • I have been reading journal abstract
    • She has been writing a letter
    • She has been learning English
    • She has been reading journal abstract
    • They have been writing a letter
    • They have been learning English
    • They have been reading journal abstract

Active Sentence in Future Tense

  • SIMPLE
    • I will write a letter
    • I will learn English
    • I will read journal abstract
    • She will write a letter
    • She will learn English
    • She will read journal abstract
    • They will write a letter
    • They will learn English
    • They will read journal abstract
  • CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE
    • I will be writing a letter
    • I will be learning English
    • I will be reading journal abstract
    • She will be writing a letter
    • She will be learning English
    • She will be reading journal abstract
    • They will be writing a letter
    • They will be learning English
    • They will be reading journal abstract
  • PERFECT
    • I will have written a letter
    • I will have learned English
    • I will have read journal abstract
    • She will have written a letter
    • She will have learned English
    • She will have read journal abstract
    • They will have written a letter
    • They will have learned English
    • They will have read journal abstract
  • PERFECT CONTINUOUS
    • I will have been writing a letter
    • I will have been learning English
    • I will have been reading journal abstract
    • She will have been writing a letter
    • She will have been learning English
    • She will have been reading journal abstract
    • They will have been writing a letter
    • They will have been learning English
    • They will have been reading journal abstract

Berikut ini beberapa contoh kalimat aktif yang didapatkan dari jurnal ilmiah (Keterangan: tebal subjek; tebal-miring predikat).

  1. Content and discourse analysis of interviews with two elementary teachers revealed how they perceived features of their professional contexts as supports or constraints on their agency to create student-centered instruction as they planned from mathematics curriculum resources
  2. In the United States, scholarship on antiracist teaching in teacher education abounds
  3. This paper reports on teachers’ assessment practices, values underlying them, and the predictors of assessment practice dimensions
  4. The findings show that the most powerful predictor of high job satisfaction among SCTs is the availability of support whereas the most powerful predictor among FCTs is workload
  5. In cooperative learning, teachers structure students’ interactions and prepare them for cooperation so that students work together in small groups supporting each other’s’ learning processes

Passive Sentence / Passive Voice

Berikut ini materi penunjang untuk passive voice:

Sebaliknya, passive sentence/voice merupakan jenis kalimat yang subjeknya dikenai aksi dari predikat. Passive voice dibentuk dari formula "Be diikuti Past Participle".

  • English is learned (by a student)

Pada contoh kalimat diatas, be "is" yang diikuti oleh past participle "learned" menegaskan bahwa kalimat tersebut merupakan kalimat pasif. Perlu diingat bahwa penggunaan be harus sesuai dengan subjek dan tense & aspect yang digunakan.

Didalam bahasa Indonesia, predikat dari passive sentence biasanya berawalan di_ atau ter_.

Berikut contoh-contoh kalimat pasif (passive sentence/voice) dalam kaitannya dengan pronoun, noun dan tense & aspect. Perhatikan perubahan predikat yang diakibatkan oleh subjek (pronoun/noun) dan tense & aspect.

Passive Sentence in Past Tense

  • SIMPLE
    • A letter was written (by me)
    • Letters were written (by me)
    • English was learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract was read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts were read (by me)
    • A letter was written (by her)
    • Letters were written (by her)
    • English was learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract ws read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts were read (by her)
    • A letter was written (by them)
    • Letters were written (by them)
    • English ws learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract ws read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts were read (by them)
  • CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE
    • A letter was being written (by me)
    • Letters were being written (by me)
    • English was being learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract was being read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts were being read (by me)
    • A letter was being written (by her)
    • Letters were being written (by her)
    • English was being learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract was being read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts were being read (by her)
    • A letter was being written (by them)
    • Letters were being written (by them)
    • English was being learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract was being read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts were being read (by them)
  • PERFECT
    • A letter had been written (by me)
    • Letters had been written (by me)
    • English had been learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract had been read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts had been read (by me)
    • A letter had been written (by her)
    • Letters had been written (by her)
    • English had been learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract had been read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts had been read (by her)
    • A letter had been written (by them)
    • Letters had been written (by them)
    • English had been learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract had been read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts had been read (by them)
  • PERFECT CONTINUOUS
    • A letter had been being written (by me)
    • Letters had been being written (by me)
    • English had been being learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract had been being read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts had been being read (by me)
    • Letters had been being written (by her)
    • Letters had been being written (by her)
    • English had been being learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract had been being read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts had been being read (by ther)
    • A letter had been being written (by them)
    • Letters had been being written (by them)
    • English had been being learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract had been being read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts had been being read (by them)

Passive Sentence in Present Tense

  • SIMPLE
    • A letter is written (by me)
    • Letters are written (by me)
    • English is learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract is read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts are read (by me)
    • A letter is written (by her)
    • Letters are written (by her)
    • English is learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract is read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts are read (by her)
    • A letter is written (by them)
    • Letters are written (by them)
    • English is learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract is read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts are read (by them)
  • CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE
    • A letter is being written (by me)
    • Letters are being written (by me)
    • English is being learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract is being read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts are being read (by me)
    • A letter is being written (by her)
    • Letters are being written (by her)
    • English is being learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract is being read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts are being read (by her)
    • A letter is being written (by them)
    • Letters are being written (by them)
    • English is being learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract is being read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts are being read (by them)
  • PERFECT
    • A letter has been written (by me)
    • Letters have been written (by me)
    • English has been learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract has been read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts have been read (by me)
    • A letter has been written (by her)
    • Letters have been written (by her)
    • English has been learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract has been read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts have been read (by her)
    • A letter has been written (by them)
    • Letters have been written (by them)
    • English has been learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract has been read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts have been read (by them)
  • PERFECT CONTINUOUS
    • A letter has been being written (by me)
    • Letters have been being written (by me)
    • English has been being learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract has been being read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts have been being read (by me)
    • Letters have been being written (by her)
    • Letters have been being written (by her)
    • English has been being learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract has been being read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts have been being read (by ther)
    • A letter has been being written (by them)
    • Letters have been being written (by them)
    • English has been being learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract has been being read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts have been being read (by them)

Passive Sentence in Future Tense

  • SIMPLE
    • A letter will be written (by me)
    • Letters will be written (by me)
    • English will be learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract will be read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts will be read (by them)
    • A letter will be written (by her)
    • Letters will be written (by her)
    • English will be learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract will be read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts will be read (by them)
    • A letter will be written (by them)
    • Letters will be written (by them)
    • English will be learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract will be read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts will be read (by them)
  • CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE
    • A letter will be being written (by me)
    • Letters will be being written (by me)
    • English will be being learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract will be being read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts will be being read (by me)
    • A letter will be being written (by her)
    • Letters will be being written (by her)
    • English will be being learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract will be being read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts will be being read (by her)
    • A letter will be being written (by them)
    • Letters will be being written (by them)
    • English will be being learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract will be being read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts will be being read (by them)
  • PERFECT
    • A letter will have been written (by me)
    • Letters will have been written (by me)
    • English will have been learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract will have been read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts will have been read (by me)
    • A letter will have been written (by her)
    • Letters will have been written (by me)
    • English will have been learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract will have been read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts will have been read (by her)
    • A letter will have been written (by them)
    • Letters will have been written (by me)
    • English will have been learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract will have been read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts will have been read (by them)
  • PERFECT CONTINUOUS
    • A letter will have been being written (by me)
    • Letters will have been being written (by me)
    • English will have been being learned (by me)
    • Journal abstract will have been being read (by me)
    • Journal abstracts will have been being read (by me)
    • A letter will have been being written (by her)
    • Letters will have been being written (by her)
    • English will have been being learned (by her)
    • Journal abstract will have been being read (by her)
    • Journal abstracts will have been being read (by her)
    • A letter will have been being written (by them)
    • Letters will have been being written (by them)
    • English will have been being learned (by them)
    • Journal abstract will have been being read (by them)
    • Journal abstracts will have been being read (by them)

Berikut ini beberapa contoh yang dikutip dari abstrak jurnal.

  1. Implications for supporting student-centered mathematics instruction are discussed
  2. Implications for antiracist teaching practice and research are discussed
  3. Responses from 327 Indonesian teachers towards the Assessment for Learning in International Contexts (ALIC) questionnaire were analysed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and regression analysis
  4. Personal interviews were conducted with eight SCTs
  5. Although teachers were well informed about the principles of cooperative learning, they only knew a few methods to implement cooperative learning in class

Passive sentence dibentuk dengan pola be [was/were, am/are/is, will be] yang diikuti oleh past participle (baca: Past Participle).

meskipun pola dari passive voice telah paten ("be + past participle"), namun terkadang terdapat kelas kata lain (biasanya berupa adverb) yang dapat mengantarai be dengan past participle (Lihat contoh 5 - adverb "well" mengantarai be "were" dengan past participle "informed"). Adverb disekitar predikat dari passive voice berfungsi untuk menjelaskan predikat passive voice secara lebih spesifik (baca: Adverb).

Passive sentence/voice memiliki sedikit kemiripan dengan nominal sentence. Bedanya, "be" dalam nominal sentence tidak diikuti past participle sementara "be" dalam passive sentence/voice diikuti oleh past participle.