Pronoun

Pronoun, atau yang dalam bahasa Indonesia dikenal dengan istilah kata ganti, merupakan kelas kata yang merujuk pada seseorang berdasarkan sudut pandang orang pertama (saya). Misalnya, Andi diganti "dia", Andi dan Rudi diganti "mereka". Berdasarkan posisi/kedudukannya didalam kalimat, pronoun dapat dibagi kedalam beberapa jenis.

Subjective/Nominative Pronoun

Sesuai istilahnya, subjective (nominative) pronoun merujuk pada penggunaan pronoun sebagai subjek (pelaku) kalimat.

Berikut ini klasifikasi personal pronoun berdasarkan orangnya.

Indonesian Orang Pertama Orang Kedua Orang ketiga
Tunggal Saya Anda/Kamu Dia
Jamak Kami Kalian Mereka
English First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular I You He, She, It
Plural We You They

Contoh penggunaan dari masing-masing subjective/nominative pronoun diatas dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut.

Subjective Pronoun Example
I I see you
you you learn English
you (kalian) you all learn English
we we learn English
they they learn English
he he learns English
she she learns English
It it is English book

Catatan: kata dicetak tebal merupakan objective pronoun.

Objective Pronoun

Sesuai istilahnya, objective pronoun digunakan untuk merujuk pada orang dalam posisinya sebagai objek (yang terkena efek dari predikat).

Contoh penggunaan dari masing-masing objective pronoun diatas dapat dilihat pada tabel berikut.

Objective Pronoun Example
me You see me
you I see you
you (kalian) I teach you all
us He gave us some books
them I gave them some books
him I see him
her I see her
it I take it

Catatan: kata dicetak tebal merupakan objective pronoun.

Possessive Adjective/Determiner

Meskipun bagian ini lebih cocok dibahas pada pembahasan tentang "adjective", namun karena kaitannya dengan pronoun sangatlah erat, maka tidak ada salahnya untuk mengulas possessive adjective pada pembahasan ini.

Possessive adjective, atau possessive determiner, merupakan kata yang digunakan untuk merujuk pada kepemilikan. Posisinya dalam kalimat adalah sebagai kata sifat. berikut ini merupakan kata yang termasuk dalam possessive adjective. Perlu diketahui bahwa possessive adjective tidak bisa berdiri sendiri (dependent). Dalam penggunaannya, ia harus diikuti oleh kata benda dibelakangnya.

Possessive Adjective/Determiner Example
my my English book
your your English book
your (kalian) your English book
our our English book
their their English book
his his English book
her her English book
its its cover (of English book)

Possessive Pronoun

Serupa dengan possessive adjective, possessive pronoun juga merujuk kepada kepemilikan. Jika possessive adjective tidak dapat berdiri sendiri (dependent) - perlu menyebut benda yang dimiliki dibelakang possessive adjective, possessive pronoun tidak perlu disertai dengan benda yang dimiliki (independent).

Possessive Pronoun Example Possessive Adjective
mine this is mine my English book
yours this is yours your English book
yours (plural) this is yours your English book
ours this is ours our English book
theirs this is theirs their English book
his this is his his English book
hers this is hers her English book
it this is it its cover (of English book)

Catatan: mine, yours, ours, theirs, his, hers, dan it pada kolom example merujuk pada English book.

This is mine = This is my English book

Reflexive Pronoun

Reflexive pronoun digunakan untuk merujuk kembali kepada subjek kalimat.

Subjective/Nominative Reflexive Pronoun Example
I myself I did it (by) myself
you yourself you did id (by) yourself
you (kalian) yourselves you did it (by) yourselves
we ourselves we did id (by) ourselves
they themselves they did id (by) themselves
he himself he did id (by) himself
she herself she did id (by) herself
it itself it refills itself

Kesimpulan

Subjective Pronoun Objective Pronoun Possessive Adjective/Determiner Possessive Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun
I me my mine myself
you you your yours yourself
you (kalian) you your yours yourselves
we us our ours ourselves
they them their theirs themselves
he him his his himself
she her her hers herself
it it its - itself