Tense & Aspect

Secara harfiah, tense berarti bentuk waktu - digunakan untuk menunjukkan waktu terjadinya sebuah peristiwa. Selanjutnya, aspect digunakan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana sebuah peristiwa terjadi.

Dari sudut pandang tata bahasa Inggris, dikenal 4 bentuk waktu - past, present, future, dan past future. Selanjutnya, dikenal pula 4 jenis aspect - simple, continuous atau progressive, perfect, dan perfect continuous.

Tense & aspect hanya mempengaruhi predikat kalimat. Pada tabel berikut ini disajikan contoh predikat yang mengalami perubahan karena tense & aspect.

Tense / Aspect Simple Continuous / Progressive Perfect Perfect Continuous
PAST I read the book I was reading the book I had read the book I had been reading the book
I studied English I was studying English I had studied English I had been studying English
They read the book They were reading the book They had read the book They had been reading the book
She read the book She was reading the book She had read the book She had been reading the book
She studied English She was studying English She had studied English She had been studying English
PRESENT I read the book I am reading the book I have read the book I have been reading the book
I study English I am studying English I have studied English I have been studying English
They read the book They are reading the book They have read the book They have been reading the book
She reads the book She is reading the book She has read the book She has been reading the book
She studies English She is studying English She has studied English She has been studying English
FUTURE I will read the book I will be reading the book I will have read the book I will have been reading the book
I will study English I will be studying English I will have studied English I will have been studying English
They will read the book They will be reading the book They will have read the book They will have been reading the book
She will read the book She will be reading the book She will have read the book She will have been reading the book
She will study English She will be studying English She will have studied English She will have been studying English

Berikut ini contoh tense yang disadur dari jurnal ilmiah.

Present Continuous

  1. Institutions of higher education are facing increased scrutiny to improve student learning and demonstrate programme effectiveness1.

Present Perfect

  1. Additionally, researchers have reported numerous advantages of this model (e.g., enhanced learning motivation, students' positive attitudes), which is encouraging2.
  2. The flipped classroom paradigm has recently emerged from K-12 education (Ash, 2012)1.

  1. O’Flaherty, J., & Phillips, C. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25, 85–95. ↩︎ ↩︎

  2. Akçayır, G., & Akçayır, M. (2018). The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges. Computers & Education, 126, 334–345. ↩︎