Secara harfiah, tense berarti bentuk waktu - digunakan untuk menunjukkan waktu terjadinya sebuah peristiwa. Selanjutnya, aspect digunakan untuk menjelaskan bagaimana sebuah peristiwa terjadi.
Dari sudut pandang tata bahasa Inggris, dikenal 4 bentuk waktu - past, present, future, dan past future. Selanjutnya, dikenal pula 4 jenis aspect - simple, continuous atau progressive, perfect, dan perfect continuous.
Tense & aspect hanya mempengaruhi predikat kalimat. Pada tabel berikut ini disajikan contoh predikat yang mengalami perubahan karena tense & aspect.
|Tense / Aspect||Simple||Continuous / Progressive||Perfect||Perfect Continuous|
|PAST||I read the book||I was reading the book||I had read the book||I had been reading the book|
|I studied English||I was studying English||I had studied English||I had been studying English|
|They read the book||They were reading the book||They had read the book||They had been reading the book|
|She read the book||She was reading the book||She had read the book||She had been reading the book|
|She studied English||She was studying English||She had studied English||She had been studying English|
|PRESENT||I read the book||I am reading the book||I have read the book||I have been reading the book|
|I study English||I am studying English||I have studied English||I have been studying English|
|They read the book||They are reading the book||They have read the book||They have been reading the book|
|She reads the book||She is reading the book||She has read the book||She has been reading the book|
|She studies English||She is studying English||She has studied English||She has been studying English|
|FUTURE||I will read the book||I will be reading the book||I will have read the book||I will have been reading the book|
|I will study English||I will be studying English||I will have studied English||I will have been studying English|
|They will read the book||They will be reading the book||They will have read the book||They will have been reading the book|
|She will read the book||She will be reading the book||She will have read the book||She will have been reading the book|
|She will study English||She will be studying English||She will have studied English||She will have been studying English|
Berikut ini contoh tense yang disadur dari jurnal ilmiah.
- Institutions of higher education are facing increased scrutiny to improve student learning and demonstrate programme effectiveness1.
- Additionally, researchers have reported numerous advantages of this model (e.g., enhanced learning motivation, students' positive attitudes), which is encouraging2.
- The flipped classroom paradigm has recently emerged from K-12 education (Ash, 2012)1.
Akçayır, G., & Akçayır, M. (2018). The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges. Computers & Education, 126, 334–345. ↩︎