Subjunctive Mood

Subjunctive mood adalah jenis kalimat yang digunakan untuk mengekspresikan tindakan, peristiwa, atau hipotesa atau (berkebalikan dengan realita). Subjunctive mood kerap digunakan untuk menunjukkan keraguan, keinginan, atau kemungkinan, dan biasanya ditandai dengan bentuk kata kerja tertentu yang berbeda dengan aturan yang lazim diketahui. Berikut ini beberapa jenis dan contoh dari subjunctive mood.

Saran, Permintaan, Harapan

  • It is important that he arrive to class on time.
  • I suggest that she be more patient.
  • I wish I had more time to sleep.

Perlu diperhatikan bahwa kata kerja yang berada setelah subjective pronoun berjenis orang ketiga (third person singular) "he" pada contoh diatas tidak mendapatkan akhiran "-s/-es" ketika digunakan dalam bentuk subjunctive mood.

Hipotesa dan Keadaan yang Tidak Sesuai Realita

  • If I were you, I would go to the party. (This expresses a hypothetical situation, as I am not actually you.)
  • If I had known about the meeting, I would have attended. (This expresses a contrary-to-fact situation, as I did not actually know about the meeting.)

Pada contoh-contoh diatas, subjunctive form "were" dan "had" digunakan untuk menyatakan hipotesa atau keadaan yang tidak sesuai realita.

Expressing doubts or uncertainties

It's doubtful that he come to the meeting. I'm not sure that she be able to finish the project on time.

In these examples, the subjunctive form "come" and "be" are used to express doubts or uncertainties.

Keharusan dan Urgensi

  • It's important that she see a doctor immediately.
  • It's necessary that we find a solution to this problem.

Emosi/Perasaan

  • God bless America.
  • Long live the king!
  • Heaven forbid that anything bad happens to him.

Kondisi Tertentu

  • If she come to the party, I will be very happy.
  • Unless they arrive on time, we will miss the show.

Expressing politeness or formality:

  • I suggest that he take a break.
  • It's requested that you arrive early for the interview.

Kemungkinan

  • If I were a millionaire, I would buy a yacht.
  • If I had more time, I could finish this project.

Saran & Nasehat

  • I suggest that you study harder for the exam.
  • It's recommended that he take a break from work.

Opini & Preferensi

  • It's important that she like the dress before buying it.
  • It's preferable that we meet in person instead of over the phone.

Keraguan atau Tidak percaya

  • I doubt that he be able to finish the project on time.
  • It's unlikely that she arrive on time.

Expressing hypothetical results: If she were to win the lottery, she would travel the world. If it rained, the flowers would grow. In these examples, the subjunctive form "were" and "would" are used to express hypothetical results.

Expressing demands or requirements: It's demanded that he be on time for the meeting. It's required that all participants speak English. In these examples, the subjunctive form "be" and "speak" are used to express demands or requirements.

Expressing regret or disappointment: If only I had studied more, I would have passed the exam. I wish she were here to celebrate with us. In these examples, the subjunctive form "had" and "were" are used to express regret or disappointment.

Expressing fear or concern: It's important that he not forget his passport. I'm afraid that they not arrive on time. In these examples, the subjunctive form "not forget" and "not arrive" are used to express fear or concern.