Active Voice & Passive Voice

Berdasarkan struktur dan bentuk predikatnya, klausa (clause) dan kalimat (sentence) dapat dibagi kedalam bentuk aktif (active voice) dan bentuk pasif (passive voice).

graph TD
NOTE[<b>NOTE</b></br> <b>Tensed Verbs</b>: Verb yang dipengaruhi oleh tense </br> <b>Linking Verb</b> & <b>Be Verb</b>: was/were, am/are/is, be </br> <b>Past Participle</b>: Kata kerja bentuk ke-3]

ClauseSentence --> Nominal 
ClauseSentence --> Verbal
Nominal -- Subject --> PronounNoun(Pronoun </br> Noun </br> Noun Phrase </br> Noun Clause)
Verbal -- Subject --> PronounNoun
PronounNoun -- Predicate --> TenseAspect((Tense & Aspect))
TenseAspect --> LinkingVerb[Linking Verb]
TenseAspect --> Verb[Verb]
Verb --> Active[Active] --> TensedVerb[Tensed Verb]
Verb --> Passive[Passive] --> BeVerbPastPartic[Be Verb + Past Participle]

style TenseAspect fill:#B65,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:2px;
style Nominal fill:#FF0,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:2px;
style LinkingVerb fill:#FF0,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:1px;
style Verbal fill:#6D0,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:2px;
style Verb fill:#6D0,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:1px;
style Active stroke:#F00,stroke-width:2px;
style Passive stroke:#F00,stroke-width:2px;
style TensedVerb fill:#6D0,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:1px;
style BeVerbPastPartic fill:#6D0,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:1px;
style NOTE fill:#DCE,stroke:#F00,stroke-width:1px;

Kalimat aktif merupakan struktur kalimat yang predikatnya menggunakan kata kerja aktif - dapat ditandai dengan pola "S + P"; sementara kalimat pasif menggunakan predikat berjenis pasif yang dapat ditandai dengan pola "S + be verb + past participle".

From the functional perspectives, the passive is known to be used for describing the event/action from the entity lower in the nominal hierarchy 1, 2.

Berikut ini beberapa contoh kalimat pasif yang disadur dari jurnal ilmiah.

  • This argument structureS wasbe reportedPast Partic. in the anthropology literature, and confirmed by our informal genre analysis of the three sample theses from the department3.
  • Swales noted that these genresS werebe requiredPast. Partic by a group of international students he had identified who, given the Anglophone turn in the international research community might end up as being part of “the lost generation” of researchers with inadequate English rhetorical skills4.
  • Importantly, a more developed understanding and abilityS to weave theoretical material into the argument wasbe viewedPast Partic. by the DoS as a marker of successful transition into postgraduate writing at the department: .....3
  • To this end, a total of 1080 Chinese university EFL learnersS werebe invitedPast Partic. to complete an IDLE questionnaire survey developed and validated in the context of China5.

Penting untuk diingat bahwa pembentukan kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris perlu mengikuti aturan tentang kesesuaian antara subject dengan predicate. Contoh berikut ini mengilustrasikan ketidak-sesuaian antara subjek dengan predikat.

  • A survey with both closed-ended and open-ended questions and semi-structured interviews werebe employedPast Partic. to collect data from English-major students (N = 118) at an Omani university6.

  1. Silverstein, M. (1976). Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity. In Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages, edited by R. M. W. Dixon. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies ↩︎

  2. Toyota, J. (2009). Fossilisation of Passive in English: Analysis of Passive Verbs. English Studies, 90(4), 476–497. doi:10.1080/00138380902990283 ↩︎

  3. McGrath, L., & Kaufhold, K. (2016). English for Specific Purposes and Academic Literacies: eclecticism in academic writing pedagogy. Teaching in Higher Education, 21(8), 933–947. doi:10.1080/13562517.2016.1198762 ↩︎ ↩︎

  4. Flowerdew, J. (2015). John Swales’s approach to pedagogy in Genre Analysis: A perspective from 25 years on. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 19, 102–112. doi:10.1016/j.jeap.2015.02.003 ↩︎

  5. Zhang, Y. & Liu G. (2022). Revisiting Informal Digital Learning of English (IDLE): A structural equation modeling approach in a university EFL context. Computer Assisted language Learning. doi: 10.1080/09588221.2022.2134424 ↩︎

  6. Naghdipour, B. (2022). ICT-enabled Informal Learning in EFL Writing. Journal of Second language Writing. doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2022.100893 ↩︎