The Distribution of Indonesian Vernaculars (Regional Languages)

The number of provinces in Indonesia currently reaches 38 provinces spread from Sumatera to Papua. In 2023, four new provinces have been added, namely Provinsi Papua Tengah, Provinsi Papua Barat Daya, Provinsi Papua Selatan, and Provinsi Papua Pegunungan. However, the newest data on Indonesian population has not been officially released. The following is the data of Indonesian population from 2018 to 2020.

mindmap
  root((INDONESIA))
    SUMATERA
      Aceh
      Sumatera Utara
      Sumatera Barat
      Bengkulu
      Riau
      Kepulauan Riau
      Jambi
      Sumatera Selatan
      Lampung 
      Kepulauan Bangka Belitung
    JAWA & BALI
      DKI Jakarta
      Jawa Barat
      Banten
      Jawa Tengah
      Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
      Jawa Timur
      Bali
    KALIMANTAN
      Kalimantan Utara
      Kalimantan Barat
      Kalimantan Timur
      Kalimantan Selatan
      Kalimantan Tengah
    SULAWESI
        Sulawesi Utara
        Gorontalo
        Sulawesi Tengah
        Sulawesi Tenggara
        Sulawesi Selatan
        Sulawesi Barat
    NUSA TENGGARA BARAT
        Nusa Tenggara Barat
    NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR
        Nusa Tenggara Timur
    MALUKU
        Maluku
        Maluku Utara
    PAPUA
        Papua
        Papua Barat 
        Papua Barat Daya
        Papua Tengah
        Papua Selatan
        Papua Pegunungan
{
"type": "bar",
    "data": {
      "labels": ["2018", "2019", "2020"],
      "datasets": [
        {
          "label": "Sumatera",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(255, 99, 132, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(255, 99, 132)",          
          "data": [57.760, 58.554, 58.552]
        }, {
          "label": "Jawa & Bali",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(255, 255, 0, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(255, 255, 0)",
          "data": [153.923, 155.394, 155.906]
        }, {
          "label": "Kalimantan",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(152, 251, 152, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(152, 251, 152)",
          "data": [16924, 16490, 16623]
        }, {
          "label": "Sulawesi",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(139, 0, 0, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(139, 0, 0)",
          "data": [19459, 19698, 19893]
        }, {
          "label": "Nusa Tenggara Barat",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(122, 131, 52, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(122, 131, 52)",
          "data": [5013, 5070, 5325]
        }, {
          "label": "Nusa Tenggara Timur",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(119,136,153, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(119,136,153)",
          "data": [5371, 5456, 5326]
        }, {
          "label": "Maluku",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(255, 165, 0, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(255, 165, 0)",
          "data": [3005, 3057, 3130]
        }, {
          "label": "Papua",
          "backgroundColor": "rgba(255, 0, 255, 0.5)",
          "hoverBackgroundColor": "rgb(255, 0, 255)",
          "data": [4259, 4338, 5437]
        }
      ]
    },
    "options": {
    "canvasDimensions": [800, 400], "responsive": true
    }
}

Indonesia Region (source: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan)

The research for mapping vernaculars or regional languages in Indonesia, conducted by "Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan" under the supervision of Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, has been carried out from 1991 to 2019. The regional languages (excluding dialects and sub-dialects) in Indonesia that have been identified and validated amount to 718 languages from 2,560 observation areas. The following graph depicts the distribution of regional language usage in Indonesia.

{
    "type": "pie",
    "data": {
        "labels": ["Aceh (7)", "Bali (5)", "Banten (3)", "Bengkulu (6)", "Gorontalo (3)", "DKI Jakarta (4)", "Jambi (7)", "Jawa Barat (2)", "Jawa Tengah (2)", "Jawa Timur (3)", "Kalimantan Barat (9)", "Kalimantan Selatan (10)", "Kalimantan Tengah (23)", "Kalimantan Timur (16)", "Kalimantan Utara (11)", "Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (2)", "Kepulauan Riau (1)", "Lampung (6)", "Maluku (62)", "Maluku Utara (19)", "Nusa Tenggara Barat (11)", "Nusa Tenggara Timur (72)", "Papua (326)", "Papua Barat (102)", "Riau (5)", "Sulawesi Barat (9)", "Sulawesi Selatan (14)", "Sulawesi Tengah (21)", "Sulawesi Tenggara (14)", "Sulawesi Utara (5)", "Sumatera Barat (3)", "Sumatera Selatan (7)", "Sumatera Utara (5)", "Yogyakarta (1)"],
        "datasets": [{
            "label": "Number of Vernaculars",
            "data": [7, 5, 3, 6, 3, 4, 7, 2, 2, 3, 9, 10, 23, 16, 11, 2, 1, 6, 62, 19, 11, 72, 326, 102, 5, 9, 14, 21, 14, 5, 3, 7, 5, 1],
            "backgroundColor": ["rgba(255, 0, 0, 1)", "rgba(0, 255, 0, 1)", "rgba(0, 0, 255, 1)", "rgba(255, 255, 0, 1)", "rgba(255, 0, 255, 1)", "rgba(0, 255, 255, 1)", "rgba(128, 0, 0, 1)", "rgba(0, 128, 0, 1)", "rgba(0, 0, 128, 1)", "rgba(128, 128, 0, 1)", "rgba(128, 0, 128, 1)", "rgba(0, 128, 128, 1)", "rgba(128, 128, 128, 1)", "rgba(192, 192, 192, 1)", "rgba(255, 165, 0, 1)", "rgba(0, 128, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 0, 255, 0.5)", "rgba(255, 255, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(255, 0, 255, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 255, 255, 0.5)", "rgba(128, 0, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 128, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 0, 128, 0.5)", "rgba(128, 128, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(128, 0, 128, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 128, 128, 0.5)", "rgba(128, 128, 128, 0.5)", "rgba(192, 192, 192, 0.5)", "rgba(255, 165, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.8)", "rgba(0, 255, 0, 0.8)", "rgba(0, 0, 255, 0.8)", "rgba(255, 255, 0, 0.8)", "rgba(255, 0, 255, 0.8)"],
            "borderWidth": 1
        }]
    },
    "options": {
    "canvasDimensions": [800, 400], "responsive": true
    }
}

Dispersion of Indonesian Vernaculars based on Regions

If divided based on island regions, the following graph illustrates the distribution of regional languages in Indonesia. When the total number is counted, it must exceed the total of vernaculars listed below. It is due to the fact that some vernaculars are spoken in several regions. Such as Bahasa Jawa which is spoken in 14 areas and Bahasa Bugis which is spoken in 11 different areas.

{
    "type": "doughnut",
    "data": {
        "labels": ["Sumatera", "Jawa & Bali", "Kalimantan", "Sulawesi", "Nusa Tenggara Barat", "Nusa Tenggara Timur", "Maluku", "Papua"],
        "datasets": [{
            "label": "Number of Vernaculars",
            "data": [26, 10, 58, 62, 11, 72, 80, 426],
            "backgroundColor": ["rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 255, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 0, 255, 0.5)", "rgba(255, 255, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(255, 0, 255, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 255, 255, 0.5)", "rgba(128, 0, 0, 0.5)", "rgba(0, 128, 0, 0.5)"],
            "borderWidth": 1
        }]
    },
    "options": {
    "canvasDimensions": [800, 400], "responsive": true
    }
}

Users of Indonesian Vernaculars

The following graph depicts the regional languages with the highest number of users.

{
    "type": "doughnut",
    "data": {
        "labels": ["Bahasa Jawa", "Bahasa Sunda", "Bahasa Madura", "Bahasa Minangkabau", "Bahasa Musi", "Bahasa Bugis", "Bahasa Banjar"],
        "datasets": [{
            "label": "Speakers",
            "data": [100000000, 42000000, 16600000, 6530000, 3930000, 3600000, 3500000],
            "backgroundColor": ["rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.3)", "rgba(0, 255, 0, 0.3)", "rgba(0, 0, 255, 0.3)", "rgba(255, 255, 0, 0.3)", "rgba(255, 0, 255, 0.3)", "rgba(0, 255, 255, 0.3)", "rgba(128, 0, 0, 0.3)"],
            "borderWidth": 1
        }]
    },
    "options": {
    "canvasDimensions": [800, 400], "responsive": true,
    "legend": { "display": false },
      "title": { "display": true, 
      "text": "Predicted world population (millions) in 2050" }
    }
}